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Table 2 Structural and socioeconomic variables (averages across the 6 and 10 years period respectively)

From: Environmental Efficiency and Pollution Costs of Nitrogen Surplus in Dairy Farms: A Parametric Hyperbolic Technology Distance Function Approach

Production variables Northern Irelanda Republic of Ireland
Desirable outputs variables
Dairy gross output (€) 241,921.15 127,283.30
Other outputs (€) 66,100.88 56,626.61
Total farm output (€) 308,022.03 183,909.91
Input variables
Labour units 1.71 1.60
Utilised agricultural area (ha) 77.75 53.65
Capital overhead costs (€) 84,248.204 48,970.61
Livestock units (LU/ha) 165.61 103.61
Herd size (Cow) 99.64 66.89
Variable input (€) 162,649.29 32,279.36
Undesirable output
Gross nitrogen balance (kg/ha) 177.66 149.89
Socioeconomic and structural variables
Milk yield (l/cow) 6223.92 5217.66
Age (years) 60.59 50.34
Stocking density (LU/ha) 2.03 2.05
Grass grazed (kg/ha) 5608.81 7161.42
Farms with off-farm income (%) 23.56 20
Investment per cow (euros/cow)   966.32
Farms in milk recording (%)   37.95
Farms in discussion group (%)   35.80
Farms with advisory contact (%)   57.95
  1. LU livestock units
  2. aHMRC exchange rate used for conversion for NI; £1 = €1.178 (average 2009–2014)