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Integrating smartphones in EFL classrooms: students’ satisfaction and perceived learning performance


The increasing prevalence and use of smartphones among college students have changed the teaching and learning arena, leading to a surge in research on integration of smartphones in education, especially language education. While most studies focused on the use of smartphones after class for language learning, this study aimed at identifying factors affecting students’ satisfaction with and perceived learning performance in the practice of integrating smartphones in EFL classrooms. The partial least squares structural equation modeling technique was used on data gathered from a sample of 278 college students in a Chinese university. The proposed research model exhibited high predictive power and relevance, confirming nine hypotheses out of twelve. Students’ continuance intention towards the practice of integrating smartphones in EFL classrooms were positively and significantly influenced by social influence, facilitating conditions, perceived enjoyment and learner control. Continuance intention, together with perceived enjoyment, and learner control showed a significantly positive impact on students’ satisfaction. Both continuance intention and satisfaction were determining factors in students’ perceived learning performance. All these factors should be carefully considered in teaching design with extensive use of smartphones in EFL classrooms.

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We would like to thank all the teachers and students who participated in the research.


This research was supported by Education Research Project of Hubei Provincial Department of Education (Grant No. 2020688) and Education Research Project of Wuhan Business University (Grant No. 2021N031) and Scientific Research Project of Wuhan Business University (Grant No. 2021KY007). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Cuiying Zou.

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Zou, C., Li, P. & Jin, L. Integrating smartphones in EFL classrooms: students’ satisfaction and perceived learning performance. Educ Inf Technol (2022).

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  • Satisfaction
  • Perceived learning performance
  • Smartphones
  • EFL classrooms