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Uncovering educational outcomes deriving from students’ acceptance and involvement with 3D virtual worlds


Three-Dimensional Virtual World (3DVW) is one of the promising innovations in the field of information and communication technologies. 3DVWs include user-created content, and they allow for user-defined purpose and a sense of presence. Users are able to navigate in and manipulate objects within the virtual environment through their avatar. This research examined the educational outcomes of using 3DVW by higher education students. As a result of this qualitative study, 18 factors were identified as the consequences of students’ acceptance of 3D Virtual World. These 18 factors were further categorised into eight categories, namely, positive learning outcome, satisfaction, engagement, learning style, environment impact, retention, skill development, and connectedness.

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Correspondence to Reza Ghanbarzadeh.

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This study was approved by the University Human Research Ethics Committee with the reference number ICT/06/14/HREC.

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Ghanbarzadeh, R., Ghapanchi, A.H. Uncovering educational outcomes deriving from students’ acceptance and involvement with 3D virtual worlds. Educ Inf Technol 26, 311–337 (2021).

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  • Three-dimensional virtual world
  • Higher education
  • Immersive learning
  • Distance learning
  • Learning outcome
  • Qualitative survey