Since the university is considered one of the most pivotal hubs for developing science and knowledge, it is expected to take e-services development more seriously in comparison with other organizations and agencies. Such a strategy helps universities deliver online services with higher quality based on users’ (such as students, professors, staff) requirements. As websites are seen as the preliminary and fundamental infrastructure of e-services, regular assessment of websites is so crucial for leveraging websites’ quality. Different studies have been conducted for assessing e-services of university websites but each study has assessed limited dimensions of websites in a specific territory. In this paper, an extended model is proposed for assessing readiness of e-services of Iranian university websites which is able to evaluate wider dimensions of websites by considering various and wider indexes and indicators in comparison with previous studies. Firstly, the most effective indexes and indicators for assessing e-services of university websites are extracted from previous studies such as security, trust, content and information quality, responsiveness quality, website design, participation, support and maintenance, services and usability. As assessing readiness of e-services websites is a Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) problem, Hybrid MCDM methods are proposed to determine the importance of indexes and indicators. The indexes and indicators are assigned weight and ranked by Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and PROMETHEE methods respectively. A pairwise comparison questionnaire was distributed between 80 experts selected based on a purposive sampling technique to collect quantitative data. The model was applied for assessing the readiness of 21 top-leading Iranian university websites aimed at recognizing the strengths and weaknesses of e-services. The readiness of university websites is obtained by calculating the readiness values of indexes and indicators. Findings show that Tarbiat Modares University and Amirkabir University received the highest and lowest readiness values respectively. Finally, some useful recommendations are proposed to enhance the websites’ quality. The practical implication of the research is providing some useful guidance for website designer and university decision makers for further development of e-services websites in accordance with user’s requirements and demands.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
We’re sorry, something doesn't seem to be working properly.
Please try refreshing the page. If that doesn't work, please contact support so we can address the problem.
Abdel-Basset, M., Zhou, Y., Mohamed, M., & Chang, V. (2018). A group decision making framework based on neutrosophic VIKOR approach for e-government website evaluation. Journal of Intelligent and Fuzzy Systems, 34(6), 4213–4224.
Abdulah, L., Chan, W., & Afshari, A. (2019). Applications of PROMETHEE method for green supplier selection: A comparative result based on preference functions. Journal of Industrial Engineering International, 15(2), 271–285.
Al-dweeri, R. M., Ruiz Moreno, A., Motes, F. J. L., Obeidat, Z. M., & Al-dwairi, K. M. (2019). The effect of e-service quality on Jordanian student’s e-loyalty: An empirical study in online retailing. Industrial Management and Data Systems, 119(4), 902–923.
Ali, H. (2019). Measurement of e-services quality: An empirical study of University of Bahrain. Education and Information Technologies, 24(3), 1907–1924.
Alotaibi, M. B. (2013). Assessing the usability of university websites in Saudi Arabia: A heuristic evaluation approach. In Paper presented at the proceedings of the 2013 10th international conference on information technology : New generation, ITNG 2013.
Alzahrani, L., Al-Karaghouli, W., & Weerkkody, V. (2017). Analyzing the critical factors influencing trust in e-government adoption from citizen’s perspective: A systematic review and a conceptual framework. International Business Review, 26(1), 164–175.
Alzahrani, L., Al-Karaghouli, W., & Weerkkody, V. (2018). Investigating the impact of citizen’s trust toward the successful adoption of e-government: A multigroup analysis of gender, age, and internet experience. Information Systems Management., 35(2), 124–146.
Asees Awan, M., & Ali, Y. (2019). Sustainable modeling in reverse logistics strategies using fuzzy MCDM: Case of China Pakistan economic corridor. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, 30(5), 1132–1151.
Benaida, M., Namoun, A., & Taleb, A. (2018). Evaluation of the impact of usability in Arabic university websites: Comparison between Saudi Arabia and the UK. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, 9(8), 365–375.
Burmaoglu, S., & Kazancoglu, Y. (2012). E-government website evaluation with hybrid MCDM method in fuzzy environment. International Journal of Applied Decision Sciences, 5(5), 163–181.
Carfora, D., Dio Gironimo, G., Esposito, G., Huhtala, K., Maatta, T., Makinen, H., Miccichè, G., & Mozzillo, R. (2016). Multicriteria selection in concept design of a diverter remote maintenance port in the EU DEMO reactor using an AHP participative approach. Fusion Engineering and Design, 112, 324–331.
Concha, G., Astudillo, H., Porrua, M., & Pimenta, C. (2012). E-government procurement observatory, maturity model and early measurements. Government Information Quarterly, 29(SUPPL.1), S43–S50.
Darko, A., Chan, A. P. C., Ameyaw, E. E., Owusu, E. K., Parn, E., & Edwards, D. J. (2019). Review of application of analytic hierarchy process (AHP) in construction. International Journal of Construction Management, 19(5), 436–452.
Devi, K., & Sharma, A. K. (2016). Implementation of a framework for website quality evaluation: Himachal Pradesh University website. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 9(40).
Dominic, P. D. D., Jati, H., & Kannabiran, G. (2010). Performance evaluation on quality of Asian e-government websites-an AHP approach. International Journal of Business information systems, 6(2), 219–239.
Faustina, F., & Balaji, T. (2016). Evaluation of universities websites in Chennai city, India using analytical hierarchy process. In Paper presented at the international conference on electrical, electronics, and optimization techniques, ICEEOT 2016.
Guo, S., Hai, M., & Wang, M. (2010). A performance evaluation model of e-government website based on public attention. In Paper presented at the 2010 international conference on E-product E-service and E-entertainment, ICEEE 2010.
Hasan, L. (2013). Heuristic evaluation of three Jordanian university websites. Informatics in Education, 12(2), 231–251.
Hatami-Marbini, A., Tavana, M., Moradi, M., & Kangi, F. (2013). A fuzzy group Electre method for safety and health assessment in hazardous waste recycling facilities. Safety Science, 51(1), 414–426.
Henriksson, A., Yi, Y., Frost, B., & Middleton, M. (2007). Evaluation instrument for e-government websites. Electronic Government, 4(2), 204–226.
Huang, Z., & Benyoucef, M. (2014). Usability and credibility of e-government websites. Government Information Quarterly, 31(4), 584–595.
Iannacci, F., Seepma, A. P., de Blok, C., & Resca, A. (2019). Reappraising maturity models in e-government research: The trajectory-turning point theory. Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 28(3), 310–329.
Ismailova, R., & Inal, Y. (2018). Accessibility evaluation of top university websites: A comparative study of Kyrgyzstan, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkey. Universal Access in the Information Society, 17(2), 437–445.
Ismailova, R., & Kimsanova, G. (2017). Universities of the Kyrgyz Republic on the web: Accessibility and usability. Universal Access in the Information Society, 16(4), 1017–1025.
Joshi, P. R., & Islam, S. (2018). E-government maturity model for sustainable E-government services from the perspective of developing countries. Sustainability (Switzerland), 10(6).
Karabatak, S., & Polat, H. (2019). The effects of the flipped classroom model designed according to the ARCS motivation strategies on the student’s motivation and academic achievement levels. Education and Information Technologies.
Konstantinos, I., Georgios, T., & Garyfalos, A. (2019). A decision support system methodology for selecting wind farm installation locations using AHP and TOPSIS: Case study in eastern Macedonia and Thrace, Greece. Energy Policy, 132, 232–246.
Liu, J. S., & Wang, Y. Z. (2008). On the study of project evaluation of websites of e-government procurement of China. In Paper presented at the 2008 international conference on wireless communications, networking and Mobile computing, WiCOM 2008.
Manzoor, M., Hussain, W., Sohaib, O., Hussain, F. K., & Alkhalaf, S. (2019). Methodological investigation for enhancing the usability of university websites. Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing, 10(2), 531–549.
Pena-Lopez, I. (2018). UN e-government survey 2018. E-government in Support of Sustainable Development.
Porumbescu, G. A. (2016). Linking public sector social media and e-government website use to trust in government. Government Information Quarterly, 33(2), 291–304.
Rasyid, A., & Alfina, I. (2017). E-service quality evaluation on e-government website: Case study BPJS Kesehatan Indonesia. Paper presented at the journal of physics: Conference series.
Singh, R. K., Kansara, S., & Vishwakarma, N. K. (2018). Vendor rating system for an Indian start-up: A combined AHP & TOPSIS approach. Measuring Business Excellence, 22(3), 220–241.
Singla, B. S., & Aggarwal, H. (2018). Evaluation of Indian universities’ websites in terms of information quality: Differences in the perspective of end users segments based on their socio-demographic characteristics. International Journal of Business Information Systems, 27(2), 135–176.
Sivaji, A, Abdullah, A., & Downe, AG. (2011). Usability methodology: Effectiveness of heuristic evaluation in E-government website development. Paper presented at the Proceedings-AMS 2011: Asia modeling symposium 2011- 5th Asia International Conference on Mathematical modeling and computer Simulation.
Tella, A. (2019). The determinants of library and information science undergraduate student’s first impression of university library websites. Education and Information Technologies, 24(1), 277–294.
Tsai, W. H., Purbokusumo, Y., Julian, M. S., & Tuan, N. D. (2009). E-government evaluation: The case of Vietnam’s provincial websites. Electronic Government, 6(1), 41–53.
Twizeyimana, J. D., & Andersson, A. (2019). The public value of E-government – A literature review. Government Information Quarterly, 36(2), 167–178.
Unirank. (2019). Top Universities in Iran: 2019 Iranian University Ranking. Available at: https://www.4icu.org/ir/. (Accessed 10 October 2019).
Verkijika, S. F., & De Wet, L. (2018a). A usability assessment of e-government websites in sub-Saharan Africa. International Journal of Information Management, 39, 20–29.
Verkijika, S. F., & De Wet, L. (2018b). Quality assessment of e-government websites in Sub-Saharan Africa: A public values perspective. Electronic Journal of Information System in Developing Countries, 84(2).
Wang, C., Niu, J., Zhang, Y., & Pan, D. (2019). An evaluation model based on the fuzzy AHP for teleoperation performance. International Journal of Aerospace Psychology, 29(1–2), 42–52.
Wu, Y., Zhang, B., Wu, C., Zhang, T., & Liu, F. (2019). Optimal site selection for parabolic trough concentrating solar power plant using extended PROMETHEE method: A case in China. Renewable Energy, 143, 1910–1927.
Yuan, K., & Yuan, J. (2009). Model of integrated assessment of e-government website based on analytic hierarchy process. In Paper presented at the 2009 international conference on management of e-commence and e-government, ICMeCG 2009.
Zhou, X., Xie, H., & Yu, H. (2013). Determination of the weight values of assessment indexes of website based on AHP-take the website of university library as an example. Paper presented at the proceedings −2013 international `conference on computational and information sciences, ICCIS 2013.
Zhou, R., Wang, X., Shi, Y., Zhang, R., Zhang, L., & Guo, H. (2019). Measuring e-service quality and its importance to customer satisfaction and loyalty: An empirical study in a telecom setting. Electronic Commerce Research, 19(3), 477–499.
Zhu, Q., Du, J., & Han, X. (2007). The establishment and application of evaluation criteria system for Chinese e-government websites. Paper presented at the 2007 international conference on wireless communications, networking and mobile computing, WICOM 2007.
Zyoud, S. H., Fuchs-Hanusch, D., Shabeen, H., Samhan, S., Rabi, A., & Al-Wadi, F. (2016). Utilizing analytic hierarchy process (AHP) for decision making in water loss management of intermittent water supply systems. Journal of Water sanitation and Hygiene for Development, 6(4), 534–546.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Rights and permissions
About this article
Cite this article
Shayganmehr, M., Montazer, G.A. An extended model for assessing E-Services of Iranian Universities Websites Using Mixed MCDM method. Educ Inf Technol 25, 3723–3757 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-020-10139-x
- Assessment model