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The perceived effectiveness regarding Immersive Virtual Reality learning environments changes by the prior knowledge of learners

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The perceived effectiveness of an IVRLE may distinguish depending on the previous knowledge learners. The purpose of this research is to investigate the features of an immersive virtual reality learning environment (IVRLE) and to evaluate its perceived simulation effectiveness under the learning, attitude, and confidence sub-concepts. This study designed an IVRLE using gesture interaction for teaching preoperative surgical procedures and concepts to undergraduate nursing students. IVRLE implemented on different level nursing students to compare their perceived effectiveness regarding this learning environment.

This research includes two main phases to explore perceived simulation effectiveness. In the first phase, each of 14 volunteer 3rd-year nursing students completed the learning scenario of IVRLE four times in a month. They applied the revised survey to assess the efficiency of this IVRLE after each session. In the second phase, 57 1st-year nursing students experienced same IVRLE for once. The data gathered from the first phase was analyzed using Freidman and Wilcoxon’s non-parametric statistical tests. The data collected from 1st-year students was analyzed using a one-sample t-test, and the Pearson coefficient was calculated to discover the relationship between subscales. The findings of the first phase indicated a statistical significance among 1-4th and 3-4th implementations in favor of confidence subscale. The second phase analysis found a significant relationship between learning-confidence, learning-attitude, and attitude-confidence.

Before using IVR systems as a learning tool, learners should be familiar with IVR technologies. The results of this research emphasize to design IVRLEs considering the desired learning outcomes, abilities, and expectations of the learners. This study showed that targeted and well-designed IVRLE helps to improve the confidence of learners in practical skills.

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The developed IVRLE part of this study has been funded by Marmara University Scientific Research Commission (grant numbers: EGT-C-DRP-200716-0392 & FEN-B-131216-0542).

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Correspondence to Zeynep Taçgın.

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APPENDIX: A revised version of SET

APPENDIX: A revised version of SET



Strongly disagree

Somewhat disagree


Somewhat agree

Strongly agree


I enjoyed working with the simulation



The time allotted for this activity was adequate



The group was the right size to facilitate my learning



I had fun while I was learning



I felt stressed when the simulation’s condition worsened



The simulation and the environment were realistic



The instructor’s questions helped me to think critically



I developed a better understanding of the pre-operative procedures



I developed a better understanding of the surgical instruments



My assessment skills improved



I can better predict what changes may occur in real life



Completing the learning scenario helps me understand classroom information better



I challenged my thinking and decision making skills



I learned better experiencing this simulation rather than observing



I feel better to prepare the operating room



I felt like it was ok to make a mistake



I feel more confident in my decision-making skills



I am more confident in determining what to tell the healthcare provider



I feel more confident that I will be able to recognize changes in real conditions


1 to 6


7 to 14


15 to 19


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Taçgın, Z. The perceived effectiveness regarding Immersive Virtual Reality learning environments changes by the prior knowledge of learners. Educ Inf Technol 25, 2791–2809 (2020).

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