Education and Information Technologies

, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp 1123–1143 | Cite as

Measuring ICT orientation: Scale development & validation

  • Shabir Ahmad Bhat
  • Makhmoor Bashir


This paper attempts to measure ICT orientation of higher education teachers in Indian context. The study has identified 4 factors of ICT orientation and examined their impact on Job performance. To generate the items, their purification and validation this study has adopted well accepted and renowned scale development procedures by Churchill (Journal of Marketing Research, 16(1), 64–73, 1979) and Hinkin (Organizational Research Methods, 1(1), 104–121, 1995). A one way ANOVA test is applied to test the relationship between 4 factors of ICT orientation and the demographics of respondents. The findings of this study present a 15 item 4 factor scale measuring ICT orientation of teachers among which “advantage” emerged out to be a significant factor. The study further highlighted that ICT orientation has a direct and positive relationship with job performance. This study is the foremost study, which has developed a valid and reliable scale for measuring the ICT orientation of teachers in Indian context.


ICT orientation SEM ICT skills Scale validation Job performance 



This research work required a lot of effort. It required high concentration and the whole hearted support of people from industry and academics without which it would not have been possible to accomplish. We therefore express our sincere thanks and gratitude to all the people who have been associated with the research paper

Supplementary material


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EducationLovely Professional UniversityJalandharIndia
  2. 2.Asian Business SchoolDelhiIndia

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