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Table 4 Scale items with mean, standard deviation, and standardized loading

From: Understanding student retention in computer science education: The role of environment, gains, barriers and usefulness

Construct and scale items Mean SD Loading
Cognitive gains
 1. Acquiring a broad general education* 5.38 1.07 .543
 2. Acquiring job- or work-related knowledge and skills* 5.08 1.23 .540
 3. Thinking critically and analytically 5.23 1.22 .76
 4. Analyzing quantitative problems 5.03 1.30 .721
 5. Solving complex real-world problems 4.83 1.29 .763
Non-cognitive gains
 1. Working effectively with others* 4.76 1.32 .544
 2. Developing a personal code of values and ethics 4.32 1.45 .759
 3. Developing a deepened sense of spirituality 2.96 1.73 .724
Challenging environment
 1. Preparing for class (studying, reading, writing, rehearsing, etc. related to academic program) * 3.96 1.39 .583
 2. Coursework emphasizing analysis of the basic elements of an idea, experience, or theory 4.47 1.11 .721
 3. Coursework emphasizing synthesis and organization of ideas, information, or experiences into new, more complex interpretations and relationships 4.51 1.04 .786
 4. Coursework emphasizing the making of judgments about the value of information, arguments, or methods 4.33 1.16 .732
 5. Working harder than you thought you could to meet an instructor’s standards or expectations* 4.36 1.41 .514
 6. Campus environment emphasizing time studying and spent on academic work* 4.48 1.28 .481
Supportive environment
 1. Campus environment provides the support you need to help you succeed academically 4.67 1.41 .758
 2. Campus environment helps you cope with your non-academic responsibilities (work, family, etc.) 3.91 1.58 .741
 3. Campus environment provides the support you need to thrive socially 4.71 1.53 .800
 4. Quality of relationships with other students 5.20 1.36 .663
 5. Quality of relationships with faculty members* 4.05 1.58 .597
6. Quality of relationships with administrative personnel and offices* 3.99 1.61 .577
Degree’s usefulness
 1. My studies in CS are very useful to me 5.92 1.19 .840
 2. My studies in CS help me to improve my performance in a variety of tasks 5.73 1.20 .891
 3. My studies in CS increase my work productivity 5.33 1.41 .756
Personal values
 1. I do not feel as if I belong in CS 2.41 1.80 .847
 2. A non-computer science career would be more fulfilling to me compared to a computer science career 2.48 2.48 .859
 3. Classes are unfriendly 2.39 2.39 .639
 4. Few of my friends are studying CS 2.62 1.80 .657
Teaching quality
 1. Poor teaching by CS faculty or teaching assistants 3.65 1.78 .836
 2. Classes are boring 3.80 1.67 .792
 3. Classes are too big 2.89 1.64 .606
Satisfaction with learning effectiveness    
 1. I am unhappy with my grades 3.27 1.75 .676
 2. Excessive workload 3.45 1.72 .819
 3. Overall curriculum is too difficult or too lengthy 3.06 1.72 .918
Intention to complete studies (Retention)
 1. I plan to continue to work towards my degree 6.45 1.20 .843
 2. It is likely that I will finish my studies 6.48 1.12 .890
 3. I plan to complete my degree 6.58 1.07 .940
  1. *Item deleted due to low loading