Technological, pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK) has been used by hundreds of studies as a theoretical framework to explore teachers’ technology use in classroom settings. While these studies have contributed to understandings of the interplay between these different knowledge domains and the differences between pre- and in-service teachers’ knowledge, little work has been done to examine the influence of teachers’ socially mediated workplace settings on TPACK enactment. This paper examines the impact of situated, social contextual factors on teachers’ knowledge development and enactment by reporting findings from an eight month case study involving ten teachers in an Australian secondary school. Results reported in this paper indicate that TPACK enactment is influenced by processes of identity development and practice. These findings challenge the established position of knowledge as an epistemological possession inherent in the TPACK framework rather than also considering knowing as an epistemology of practice. Implications for in-service teachers and school authorities are discussed and three conclusions are presented.
This is a preview of subscription content,to check access.
Access this article
Similar content being viewed by others
Abramovich, S., & Schunn, C. (2012). The Influence of Teacher Created Metadata in Online Resource Exchanges. Paper presented at the world wide web conference. France: Lyon.
Albion, P., Jamieson-Proctor, R., & Finger, G. (2010). Auditing the TPACK confidence of Australian pre-service teachers: the TPACK Confidence Survey (TCS). Paper presented at the Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2010, San Diego, CA, USA. http://www.editlib.org/p/33969
Angeli, C., & Valanides, N. (2009). Epistemological and methodological issues for the conceptualiation, development, and assessment of ICT-TPCK: advances in technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK). Computers and Education, 52(1), 154–168.
Archambault, L., & Crippen, K. (2009). Examining TPACK among K-12 online distance educators in the United States. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9(1), 71–88.
Ayling, D., & Flagg, E. (2012). Getting stuck in: Learners participation in an online community of practice. Paper presented at the New Zealand Association for Cooperative Education 2012 Conference Proceedings.
Bagnoli, A. (2009). Beyond the standard interview: the use of graphic elicitation and arts-based methods. Qualitative Research, 9(5), 547–570.
Barab, S., & Duffy, T. (2000). From practice fields to communities of practice. Theoretical foundations of learning environments, 1(1), 25–55.
Barkley, C. (2012). School leader use of social Media for Professional Discourse.
Barton, D., & Tusting, K. (Eds.) (2005). Beyond communities of practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bulfin, S. (2009). Literacies, new technologies and young people: Negotiating the interface in secondary school. (PhD), Monash University, Melbourne.
Cook, S., & Brown, J. (1999). Bridging epistemologies: the generative dance between organizational knowledge and organizational knowing. Organization Science, 10(4), 381–400.
Cox, S. (2008). A conceptual analysis of technological pedagogical content knowledge. (PhD), Brigham Young University, Provo.
Cox, S., & Graham, C. R. (2009). Diagramming TPACK in practice: using an elaborated model of the TPACK framework to analyze and depict teacher knowledge. TechTrends, 53(5), 60–69.
Crilly, N., Blackwell, A. F., & Clarkson, P. J. (2006). Graphic elicitation: using research diagrams as interview stimuli. Qualitative Research, 6(3), 341–366.
Cuban, L. (2004). The blackboard and the bottom line. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Denscombe, M. (2008). Communities of practice a research paradigm for the mixed methods approach. Journal of mixed methods research, 2(3), 270–283.
Drath, W. H., & Palus, C. J. (1994). Making common sense: Leadership as meaning-making in a community of practice. Greensboro, North Carolina: Center for Creative Leadership.
Dynarski, M., Agodini, R., Heaviside, S., Novak, T., Carey, N., Campuzano, L., . . . Sussex, W. (2007). Effectiveness of reading and mathematics software products: findings from the first student cohort. Retrieved from Washinton, D.C.: http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/pdf/20074005.pdf
Dyson, A. H., & Genishi, C. (2005). On the case: approaches to language and literacy research. New York: Teachers College Press.
Elkjaer, B. (2003). Organisational learning with a pragmatic slant. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 22(5), 481–494.
Fuller, A., Hodkinson, H., Hodkinson, P., & Unwin, L. (2005). Learning as peripheral participation in communities of practice: a reassessment of key concepts in workplace learning. British Educational Research Journal, 31(1), 49–68. doi:10.1080/0141192052000310029.
Geertz, C. (1973). The interpretation of cultures. New York: Basic Books.
Gray, B. (2004). Informal learning in an online Community of Practice. Journal of Distance Education, 19(1), 20–35.
Graham, C. R. (2011). Theoretical considerations for understanding technological pedagogical knowledge (TPACK). Computers and Education, 57, 1953–1960.
Hager, P. (2005). Current theories of workplace learning: a critical assessment. In N. Basica, A. Cumming, A. Datnow, K. Leithwood & D. Livingstone (Eds.), International Handbook of Educational Policy (pp. 829–846). London: Springer.
Handley, K., Sturdy, A., Fincham, R., & Clark, T. (2006). Within and beyond communities of practice: making sense of learning through participation, identity and practice. Journal of Management Studies, 43(3), 641–653. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6486.2006.00605.x.
Henderson, M. (2007). Investigating the role of community in sustaining teacher participation in blended professional development. (PhD), James Cook University, Townsville.
Hildreth, P. M., Kimble, C., & Wright, P. (1998). Computer mediated communications and communities of practice. Paper presented at the Proceedings of Ethicomp.
Howley, A., Wood, L., & Hough, B. (2011). Rural elementary school teachers’ technology integration. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 26(9), 1–13.
Jain, A., Thomson, D., Farley, A., & Mulready, P. (2012). Engagement and learning through social software in finance: a retrospective on the trading room experience. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 37(6), 701–718.
Jang, S. (2006). Research on the effects of team teaching upon two secondary school teachers. Educational Research, 48(2), 177–194.
Jimoyiannis, A. (2010). Designing and implementing an integrated technological pedagogical science knowledge framework for science teachers professional development. Computers and Education, 55(3), 1259–1269.
Johnson, C. M. (2001). A survey of current research on online communities of practice. The Internet and Higher Education, 4(1), 45.
Jordan, K., & Dinh, H. (2012). TPACK: trends in current research. Paper presented at the Australian Computers in Education Conference (ACEC), 2012. Perth: Australia.
Kelly, M. A. (2008). Bridging digital and cultural divides: TPCK for equity of access to technology. In AACTE Committee on Inovation and Technology (Ed.), The Handbook of Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPCK) for Educators. New York: Routledge.
Kensler, L. A. W., Reames, E., Murray, J., & Patrick, L. (2012). Systems thinking tools for improving evidence-based practice: a cross-case analysis of two high school leadership teams. The High School Journal, 95(2), 32–53.
Koehler, M., & Mishra, P. (2005). What happens when teachers design educational technology? The development of technological pedagogical content knowledge. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 32(2), 131–152.
Koehler, M., & Mishra, P. (2008). Introducing TPCK. Handbook of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge TPCK for Educators Routledge.
Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning. Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Merriam, S. (1998). Qualitative research and case study applications in education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Mills, C. W. (1959). The sociological imagination. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: a framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017–1054.
Mumtaz, S. (2000). Factors affecting teachers’ use of information and communications technology: a review of the literature. Journal of Information Technology for Teacher Education, 9(3), 319–341. doi:10.1080/14759390000200096.
Phillips, M. (2012). The role of community in teachers’ knowledge development. In Paper presented at the ACEC 2012. Perth: Western Australia.
Phillips, M. (2013). Investigating In-service teachers’ workplace TPACK development. Australian Educational Computing, 28(2), 21–31.
Phillips, M. (2014). Teachers’ TPACK enactment in a Community of Practice. (PhD), Monash University, Melbourne.
Phillips, M. (2015). Models of technology integration. In M. Henderson & G. Romeo (Eds.), Teaching and digital technologies (pp. 318–331). Melbourne, Australia: Cambridge University Press.
Phillips, M. (2016). Re-contextualising TPACK: exploring teachers’ (non)use of digital technologies. Pedagogy and Education: Technology.
Phillips, M., Lancaster, G., & Cooper, B. (2014). Team teaching with technology: Upsetting the TPACK applecart. Paper presented at the Australian Computers in Education Conference 2014, Adelaide, SA. http://acec2014.acce.edu.au/sites/2014/files/drafts/Team teaching with techonology. Upsetting the TPACK applecart.pdf
Phillips, M., Koehler, M., & Rosenberg, J. (2016). Looking outside the circles: Considering the contexts influencing TPACK development and enactment. Paper presented at the Society for Information Technologies in education conference. Georgia, USA: Savannah.
Porras-Hernández, L. H., & Salinas-Amescua, B. (2013). Strengthening TPACK: a broader notion of context and the use of Teacher’s narratives to reveal knowledge construction. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 48(2), 223–244.
Rittel, H. W. J., & Webber, M. M. (1973). Dilemmas in a general theory of planning. Policy Sciences, 4, 155–169.
Rogers, J. (2000). Communities of practice: a framework for fostering coherence in virtual learning communities. Educational Technology & Society, 3(3), 384–392.
Rose, G. (2012). Visual methodologies: An introduction to researching with visual materials:. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Rosenberg, J., & Koehler, M. J. (2015). Context and Teaching with Technology in the Digital Age. In M. L. Niess & H. Gillow-Wiles (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Teacher Education in the Digital Age, (p. 440.). Hershey: IGI Global.
Roth, W., Tobin, K., Carambo, C., & Dallard, C. (2004). Co teaching: creating resources for learning and learning to teach chemistry in urban high schools. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 41(9), 882–904.
Sandholtz, J. (2000). Interdisciplinary team teaching as a form of professional development. Teacher Education Quarterly, 27(3), 39–54.
Selwyn, N. (2010). Looking beyond learning: notes towards the critical study of educational technology. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 26(1), 65–73. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2729.2009.00338.x.
Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15(2), 4–14.
Shulman, L. S. (1993). Teaching as community property. Change, 25(6), 6–7.
Simon, H. (1991). Bounded rationality and organizational learning. Organization Science, 2(1), 125–134.
Somekh, B. (2008). Factors affecting teachers’ pedagogical adoption of ICT. In J. Voogt & G. Knezek (Eds.), International handbook of information Technology in Primary and Secondary Education (pp. 449–460). New York: Springer Science + Business Media, LLC..
Squires, S., & Van De Vanter, M. L. (2012). Communities of practice. A Companion to Organizational Anthropology, 289–310.
Stake, R. (1995). The art of case study research. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Straub, E. T. (2009). Understanding technology adoption: theory and future directions for informal learning. Review of Educational Research, 79(2), 625–649.
Varga-Atkins, T., & O’Brien, M. (2009). From drawings to diagrams: maintaining researcher control during graphic elicitation in qualitative interviews. International Journal of Research & Method in Education, 32(1), 53–67.
Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice. Learning, meaning and identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Willis, J. (2007). Foundations in qualitative research: interpretive and critical approaches. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Yin, R. (2009). Case study research: design and methods (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.
About this article
Cite this article
Phillips, M. Processes of practice and identity shaping teachers’ TPACK enactment in a community of practice. Educ Inf Technol 22, 1771–1796 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-016-9512-y