Skip to main content

Learning strategies as a mediator for motivation and a sense of achievement among students who study in MOOCs

Abstract

The goal of the research was to examine the contribution of learning strategies as a mediator for motivation and a sense of achievement in a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC), among students who participate in a unique program in Israel, called “Academy Online – MOOCs in the Israeli Education System”. The goal of the program was to integrate an innovative distant teaching-learning strategy in science and technology into the education system. 163 students participated in the study, of whom 70 were students in an astronomy-related sciences program, and 93 were students in mechatronics-robotics course. At the end of the course, the students answered a Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), and a Sense of Achievement in a MOOC questionnaire, which was based on the principles of the pedagogical model of the program. The findings of the SEM path analysis show that the variable ‘Learning Strategies’ is a significant mediator for motivation and a sense of academic achievement in a MOOC for both groups, and a stronger mediator for the astronomy-related sciences students. It may be concluded that using a variety of learning strategies in a curriculum which integrates a MOOC affects the sense of academic achievement. It is clear that social learning strategies and self-regulated learning, which were a unique layer in the pedagogical layout of the program, have assisted in promoting the learning in MOOCs.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  • Arbuckle, J. L. (2013). AMOS 22.0 user’s guide. Chicago: SPSS Inc..

    Google Scholar 

  • Assor, A., Kanat-Maymon, Y., & Roth, G. (2014). Parental conditional regard: Psychological costs and antecedents. In N. Weinstein (Ed.), Human motivation and interpersonal relationships (pp. 215–237). Netherlands: Springer.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Brahimi, T., & Sarirete, A. (2015). Learning outside the classroom through MOOCs. Computers in Human Behavior, 51, 601–609.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Byrne, B. M. (2009). Structural equation modeling with AMOS. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  • Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Deci, E. L., Vallerand, R. J., Pelletier, L. G., & Ryan, R. M. (1991). Motivation and education: The self-determination perspective. Educational Psychologist, 26(3–4), 325–346.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Duncan, T. G., & McKeachie, W. J. (2005). The making of the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire. Educational Psychologist, 40, 117–128.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Educause Learning Initiative (2012). 7 things you should know about flipped classrooms. Retrieved May 17, 2015 from http://www.net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7081.pdf.

  • Eshel, Y., & Kohavi, R. (2003). Perceived classroom control, self-regulated learning strategies, and academic achievement. Educational Psychology, 23(3), 249–260.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ferdig, R. E. (2013). What massive open online courses have to offer K–12 teachers and students. Lansing: Michigan Virtual Learning Research Institute Retrieved from: http://www.media.mivu.org/institute/pdf/mooc_report.pdf.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ferdig, R. E., Pytash, K. E., Merchant, W., & Nigh, J. (2014). Findings and reflections from the K-12 teaching in the 21st century MOOC. Lansing: Michigan Virtual Learning Research Institute Retrieved May 13, 2015 from http://www.media.mivu.org/institute/pdf/Mooc_Findings.pdf.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gaebel, M. (2013). MOOCs – massive open online courses. The European University Association. Retrieved May 13, 2015 from http://www.eua.be/Libraries/Publication/EUA_Occasional_papers_MOOCs.sflb.ashx.

  • Gottfried, A. E., Marcoulides, G. A., Gottfried, A. W., Oliver, P. H., & Guerin, G. W. (2007). Multivariate latent change modeling of developmental decline in academic intrinsic math motivation and achievement: Childhood through adolescence. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 31, 317–327.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hecht, Y. (2013). Social pedagogy model. Retrieved April 20, 2015 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DNQB9KP1JVo.

  • Hu, H., & Driscoll, M. P. (2013). Self-regulation in e-learning environments: A remedy for community college? Educational Technology & Society, 16(4), 171–184.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jackson, N. M. (2013). MOOCs go to K12: Higher ed trend expands to high schools. District Administration. Retrieved May 17, 2015 from http://www.districtadministration.com/article/moocs-go-k12-higher-ed-trend-expands-high-schools.

  • Kapp, K. (2012). The gamification of learning and instruction: game-based methods and strategies for training and education. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Katz, I., Assor, A., & Kanat-Maymon, Y. (2008). A projective assessment of autonomous motivation in children: Correlational and experimental evidence. Motivation and Emotion, 32, 109–119.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kline, R. B. (2010). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (3rd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  • Kolwich, S. (2012). Who takes MOOCs? Inside higher Ed. Retrieved May 13, 2015 from http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2012/06/05/early-demographic-data-hints-what-type-student-takes-mooc.

  • Martin, A. J. (2008). Enhancing student motivation and engagement: The effects of a multidimensional intervention contemporary. Educational Psychology, 33, 239–269.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nigh, J., Pytash, K. E., Ferdig, R. E., & Merchant, W. (2015). Investigating the potential of MOOCs in K-12 teaching and learning environments. Journal of Online Learning Research, 1(1), 85–106.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pintrich, P. R. (2000). The role of orientation in self-regulated learning. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 451–502). San Diego: Academic Press.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Pintrich, P. R. (2003). A motivational science perspective on the role of student motivation in learning and teaching contexts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(4), 667–686.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pintrich, P. R. (2004). A conceptual framework for assessing motivation and self–regulated learning in college students. Educational Psychology Review, 16, 385–407.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pintrich, P. R., Smith, D. A. F., Garcia, T., & McKeachie, W. J. (1991). A manual for the use of the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MSLQ). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, National Center for Research to Improve Postsecondary Teaching and Learning.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pintrich, P. R., Smith, D. A. F., Garcia, T., & McKeachie, W. J. (1993). Reliability and predictive validity of the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MSLQ). Educational and Psychological Measurement, 53, 801–813.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Protalinski, E. (2013). Coursera moves beyond universities and into K-12 with 12 new institutions and 28 free courses for teachers. Retrieved May 13, 2015 from http://www.thenextweb.com/insider/2013/05/01/coursera-moves-beyond-universities-by-partnering-with-12-institutions-to-offer-28-free-courses-for-teachers/#!t4vwT.

  • Ramachandran, V. S. (2012). The encyclopedia of human behavior. Second edition Academic Press.

  • Riding, R. J., & Rayner, S. G. (1998). Cognitive styles and learning strategies: Understanding style differences in learning and behavior. London: David Fulton.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68–78.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Siemens, G. (2012). New structures and spaces of learning: The systemic impact of connective knowledge, connectivism, and networked learning. Retrieved May 13, 2015 from http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/systemic_impact.htm.

  • Vivian, R., Falkner, K., & Falkner, N. (2014). Addressing the challenges of a new digital technologies curriculum: MOOCs as a scalable solution for teacher professional development. Research in Learning Technology, 22, 1–19.

    Google Scholar 

  • Weinstein, C. E., Goetz, E. T., & Alexander, P. A. (Eds.) (1988). Learning and study strategies: Issues in assessment, instruction, and evaluation. San Diego: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Weinstein, C. E., Husman, J., & Dierking, D. R. (2000). Self-regulation interventions with a focus on learning strategies. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 727–747). London: Academic Press.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Wolters, C. A. (2010). Self-regulated learning and the 21st century competencies. Retrieved May 13, 2015 from http://www.hewlett.org/uploads/Self_Regulated_Learning__21st_Century_Competencies.pdf.

  • Yuan, L., & Powell S. (2013). MOOCs and open education: Implication for higher education. JISC CETIS - Centre for educational technology & interoperability standards. Retrieved May 17, 2015 from http://www.publications.cetis.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/MOOCs-and-Open-Education.pdf.

  • Zutshi, S., O’Hare, S., & Rodafinos A. (2013). Experiences in MOOCs: The perspective of students. The American Journal of Distance Education. Retrieved May 13, 2015 from http://www.tandfonline.com.ezproxy.levinsky.ac.il/doi/pdf/10.1080/08923647.2013.838067.

Download references

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Noga Magen-Nagar.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Magen-Nagar, N., Cohen, L. Learning strategies as a mediator for motivation and a sense of achievement among students who study in MOOCs. Educ Inf Technol 22, 1271–1290 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-016-9492-y

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-016-9492-y

Keywords

  • MOOC
  • Motivation
  • Learning strategies
  • Sense of achievement