Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Global prevalence of sleep deprivation in students and heavy media use

Abstract

The latest two international educational assessments found global prevalence of sleep deprivation in students, consistent with what has been reported in sleep research. However, despite the fundamental role of adequate sleep in cognitive and social functioning, this important issue has been largely overlooked by educational researchers. Drawing upon evidence from sleep research, literature on the heavy media use by children and adolescents, and data from web analytics on youth-oriented game sites and mobile analytics on youth-oriented game apps, we argue that heavy media use, particularly digital game play, may be an important contributor to sleep deprivation in students. Therefore, educational researchers, policy makers, teachers, and parents should pay greater attention to student sleep and develop programs and interventions to improve both quality and quantity of student sleep.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1

Notes

  1. 1.

    The 12 major educational research journals we examined include Educational Researcher, American Educational Research Journal, Review of Educational Research, Journal of the Learning Sciences, Learning and Instruction, Instructional Science, Elementary School Journal, British Educational Research Journal, Teachers College Record, Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, Educational Psychologist, and Journal of Education Policy, six major subject-specific journals, including Journal of Research in Science Teaching, Science Education, International Journal of Science Education, Reading Research Quarterly, Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, and Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, seven major educational technology journals, including Computers & Education, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, British Journal of Educational Technology, Educational Technology & Society, Educational Technology Research and Development, Learning Media and Technology, and Interactive Learning Environments, and five journals that focus on educational administration and school improvement, including Education and Urban Society, Educational Administration Quarterly, Educational Management Administration & Leadership, School Effectiveness and School Improvement, and Improving Schools.

  2. 2.

    Data was retrieved from http://popcap.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=30842 on September 20, 2014.

  3. 3.

    Data was retrieved from http://www.appannie.com/search/?vertical=apps&market=ios and http://www.appannie.com/search/?vertical=apps&market=google-play on January 16, 2015.

  4. 4.

    Data was retrieved from http://www.pocketgamer.biz/metrics/app-store/ on January 20, 2015.

  5. 5.

    Data was retrieved from http://www.appbrain.com/stats/android-market-app-categories on January 20, 2015.

  6. 6.

    Data was retrieved from http://www.distimo.com/blog/2013_08_top-global-apps-july-2013/ on September 20, 2014. Distimo is a mobile Analytics company.

References

  1. 9to5mac (2012). Angry birds passes one billion downloads. http://9to5mac.com/2012/05/09/angry-birds-passes-one-billion-downloads-video/.

  2. Ankur (2013). Despicable me: minion rush reaches 100 million downloads. http://blog.gameloft.co.in/index.php/despicable-me-minion-rush-reaches-100-million-downloads-new-minion-beach-update-arrives-ios-android/.

  3. App Annie, & IDC. (2013). Portable gaming report, Q1 2013: iOS games consumer spending overtakes that of dedicated handheld games. San Francisco: App Annie and International Data Corporation (IDC).

  4. Arora, T., Hussain, S., Lam, K. H., Yao, G. L., Thomas, G. N., & Taheri, S. (2013). Exploring the complex pathways among specific types of technology, self-reported sleep duration and body mass index in UK adolescents. International Journal of Obesity, 37(9), 1254–1260.

  5. Baer, S., Saran, K., & Green, D. A. (2012). Computer/gaming station use in youth: correlations among use, addiction and functional impairment. Paediatrics & Child Health, 17(8), 427–431.

  6. Beebe, D. W. (2011). Cognitive, behavioral, and functional consequences of inadequate sleep in children and adolescents. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 58(3), 649–665.

  7. Biddle, R. (2012). America’s woeful public schools: TIMSS sheds light on the need for systemic reform. http://dropoutnation.net/2012/12/11/americas-woeful-public-schools-timms-sheds-light-on-the-need-for-systemic-reform/.

  8. Blades, M., Blumberg, F. C., & Oates, C. (2013). The importance of digital games for children and young people. Zeitschrift für Psychologie (Journal of Psychology), 221(2), 65–66.

  9. Blunden, S. L., Chapman, J., & Rigney, G. A. (2012). Are sleep education programs successful? the case for improved and consistent research efforts. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 16(4), 355–370.

  10. Cain, N., & Gradisar, M. (2010). Electronic media use and sleep in school-aged children and adolescents: a review. Sleep Medicine, 11(8), 735–742.

  11. Cain, N., Gradisar, M., & Moseley, L. (2011). A motivational school-based intervention for adolescent sleep problems. Sleep Medicine, 12(3), 246–251.

  12. Cajochen, C., Frey, S., Anders, D., Späti, J., Bues, M., Pross, A., et al. (2011). Evening exposure to a light-emitting diodes (LED)-backlit computer screen affects circadian physiology and cognitive performance. Journal of Applied Physiology, 110(5), 1432–1438.

  13. Calamaro, C. J., Mason, T. B., & Ratcliffe, S. J. (2009). Adolescents living the 24/7 lifestyle: effects of caffeine and technology on sleep duration and daytime functioning. Pediatrics, 123(6), e1005–e1010.

  14. Casey, A., Layte, R., Lyons, S., & Silles, M. (2012). Home computer use and academic performance of nine-year-olds. Oxford Review of Education, 38(5), 617–634.

  15. Chahal, H., Fung, C., Kuhle, S., & Veugelers, P. (2013). Availability and night-time use of electronic entertainment and communication devices are associated with short sleep duration and obesity among Canadian children. Pediatric Obesity, 8(1), 42–51.

  16. Chen, X., Beydoun, M. A., & Wang, Y. (2008). Is sleep duration associated with childhood obesity? a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obesity, 16(2), 265–274.

  17. Cheung, L. M., & Wong, W. S. (2011). The effects of insomnia and internet addiction on depression in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents: an exploratory cross-sectional analysis. Journal of Sleep Research, 20(2), 311–317.

  18. Choi, K., Son, H., Park, M., Han, J., Kim, K., Lee, B., et al. (2009). Internet overuse and excessive daytime sleepiness in adolescents. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 63(4), 455–462.

  19. Curcio, G., Ferrara, M., & De Gennaro, L. (2006). Sleep loss, learning capacity and academic performance. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 10(5), 323–337.

  20. Dewald, J. F., Meijer, A. M., Oort, F. J., Kerkhof, G. A., & Bögels, S. M. (2010). The influence of sleep quality, sleep duration and sleepiness on school performance in children and adolescents: a meta-analytic review. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 14(3), 179–189.

  21. Do, Y. K., Shin, E., Bautista, M. A., & Foo, K. (2013). The associations between self-reported sleep duration and adolescent health outcomes: what is the role of time spent on internet use? Sleep Medicine, 14(2), 195–200.

  22. Dworak, M., Schierl, T., Bruns, T., & Strüder, H. K. (2007). Impact of singular excessive computer game and television exposure on sleep patterns and memory performance of school-aged children. Pediatrics, 120(5), 978–985.

  23. Entertainment Software Association. (2014). Essential facts about the computer and video game industry 2014. Washington, DC: Entertainment Software Association.

  24. Foley, L. S., Maddison, R., Jiang, Y., Marsh, S., Olds, T., & Ridley, K. (2013). Presleep activities and time of sleep onset in children. Pediatrics, 131(2), 276–282.

  25. Gaina, A., Sekine, M., Hamanishi, S., Chen, X., Wang, H., Yamagami, T., et al. (2007). Daytime sleepiness and associated factors in Japanese school children. The Journal of Pediatrics, 151(5), 518–522.e514.

  26. Gibson, E. S., Powles, A., Thabane, L., O'Brien, S., Molnar, D. S., Trajanovic, N., et al. (2006). “Sleepiness” is serious in adolescence: two surveys of 3235 Canadian students. BMC Public Health, 6(116), 1–9.

  27. Gordon, M. E. (2013). The who, what, and when of iPhone and iPad usage. http://blog.flurry.com/bid/99859/The-Who-What-and-When-of-iPhone-and-iPad-Usage.

  28. Gradisar, M., Gardner, G., & Dohnt, H. (2011). Recent worldwide sleep patterns and problems during adolescence: a review and meta-analysis of age, region, and sleep. Sleep Medicine, 12(2), 110–118.

  29. Hale, L., & Guan, S. (2015). Screen time and sleep among school-aged children and adolescents: a systematic literature review. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 21, 50–58.

  30. Higuchi, S., Motohashi, Y., Liu, Y., & Maeda, A. (2005). Effects of playing a computer game using a bright display on presleep physiological variables, sleep latency, slow wave sleep and REM sleep. Journal of Sleep Research, 14(3), 267–273.

  31. Hoefelmann, L. P., Lopes, A. D. S., da Silva, K. S., Moritz, P., & Nahas, M. V. (2013). Sociodemographic factors associated with sleep quality and sleep duration in adolescents from Santa Catarina, Brazil: what changed between 2001 and 2011? Sleep Medicine, 14(10), 1017–1023.

  32. Hofferth, S. L. (2010). Home media and children’s achievement and behavior. Child Development, 81(5), 1598–1619.

  33. Hsu, Y.-C., Hung, J.-L., & Ching, Y.-H. (2013). Trends of educational technology research: More than a decade of international research in six SSCI-indexed refereed journals. Educational Technology Research and Development, 61(4), 685–705.

  34. Jackson, L., von Eye, A., Biocca, F., Barbatsis, G., Zhao, Y., & Fitzgerald, H. (2005). How low-income children use the internet at home. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 16(3), 259–271.

  35. Jewitt, C., & Parashar, U. (2011). Technology and learning at home: findings from the evaluation of the home access programme pilot. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 27(4), 303–313.

  36. Jones, C. H. D., Owens, J. A., & Pham, B. (2013). Can a brief educational intervention improve parents’ knowledge of healthy children's sleep? a pilot-test. Health Education Journal, 72(5), 601–610. doi:10.1177/0017896912464606.

  37. Kalagian, T. (2007). Programming children’s television: the cable model. In J. A. Bryant (Ed.), The Children’s television community (pp. 147–163). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

  38. Keaton, P. (2012). Public elementary and secondary school student enrollment and staff counts from the common core of data: school year 2010–11. Washington: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education.

  39. Kerawalla, L., & Crook, C. (2002). Children's computer use at home and at school: context and continuity. British Educational Research Journal, 28(6), 751–771.

  40. Khalaf, S. (2013). Flurry five-year report: It’s an app world. The Web just lives in it. http://blog.flurry.com/bid/95723/Flurry-Five-Year-Report-It-s-an-App-World-The-Web-Just-Lives-in-It.

  41. Kira, G., Maddison, R., Hull, M., Blunden, S., & Olds, T. (2014). Sleep education improves the sleep duration of adolescents: a randomized controlled pilot study. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 10(7), 787–792.

  42. Kirby, M., Maggi, S., & D'Angiulli, A. (2011). School start times and the sleep-wake cycle of adolescents: a review and critical evaluation of available evidence. Educational Researcher, 40(2), 56–61.

  43. Kuss, D. J., & Griffiths, M. D. (2012). Online gaming addiction in children and adolescents: a review of empirical research. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 1(1), 3–22.

  44. Lehto, J. E., & Uusitalo-Malmivaara, L. (2014). Sleep-related factors: associations with poor attention and depressive symptoms. Child: Care, Health and Development, 40(3), 419–425. doi:10.1111/cch.12063.

  45. Lenhart, A., Kahne, J., Middaugh, E., Macgill, A. R., Evans, C., & Vitak, J. (2008). Teens, video games, and civics. Washington: Pew Research Center.

  46. Li, S., Arguelles, L., Jiang, F., Chen, W., Jin, X., Yan, C., et al. (2013). Sleep, school performance, and a school-based intervention among school-aged children: a sleep series study in china. PLoS One, 8(7), e67928.

  47. Madden, M., Lenhart, A., Duggan, M., Cortesi, S., & Gasser, U. (2013). Teens and technology 2013. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center.

  48. Magee, C. A., Lee, J. K., & Vella, S. A. (2014). Bidirectional relationships between sleep duration and screen time in early childhood. JAMA Pediatrics, 168(5), 465–470.

  49. Martin, M. O., Mullis, I. V. S., Foy, P., & Stanco, G. M. (2012). TIMSS 2011 international results in science. Boston, MA: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement.

  50. Media, C. S. (2013). Zero to eight: children’s media use in america 2013. San Francisco, CA: Author.

  51. Messias, E., Castro, J., Saini, A., Usman, M., & Peeples, D. (2011). Sadness, suicide, and their association with video game and internet overuse among teens: results from the youth risk behavior survey 2007 and 2009. Suicide & Life-Threatening Behavior, 41(3), 307–315.

  52. Mitru, G., Millrood, D. L., & Mateika, J. H. (2002). The impact of sleep on learning and behavior in adolescents. Teachers College Record, 104(4), 704–726.

  53. Moore, M., & Meltzer, L. J. (2008). The sleepy adolescent: causes and consequences of sleepiness in teens. Paediatric Respiratory Reviews, 9(2), 114–121.

  54. Mullis, I. V. S., Martin, M. O., Foy, P., & Arora, A. (2012a). TIMSS 2011 international results in mathematics. Boston, MA: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement.

  55. Mullis, I. V. S., Martin, M. O., Foy, P., & Drucker, K. T. (2012b). PIRLS 2011 international results in reading. Boston, MA: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement.

  56. National Sleep Foundation. (2006). 2006 teens and sleep. Washington, DC: Author.

  57. National Sleep Foundation. (2011). 2011 sleep in america poll: communications technology in the bedroom. Washington, DC: Author.

  58. Nielsen (2012). American families see tablets as playmate, teacher and babysitter. http://www.nielsen.com/us/en/newswire/2012/american-families-see-tablets-as-playmate-teacher-and-babysitter.html.

  59. NPD Group (2013). Kids are gaming on mobile devices almost as much as they are on consoles and computers. https://www.npd.com/wps/portal/npd/us/news/press-releases/kids-are-gaming-on-mobile-devices-almost-as-much-as-they-are-on-consoles-and-computers/. Accessed February 2 2015.

  60. Owens, J., Au, R., Carskadon, M., Millman, R., Wolfson, A., Braverman, P. K., et al. (2014). Insufficient sleep in adolescents and young adults: an update on causes and consequences. Pediatrics, 134(3), e921–e932.

  61. Pasch, K. E., Latimer, L. A., Cance, J. D., Moe, S. G., & Lytle, L. A. (2012). Longitudinal bi-directional relationships between sleep and youth substance use. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41(9), 1184–1196.

  62. Perkinson-Gloor, N., Lemola, S., & Grob, A. (2013). Sleep duration, positive attitude toward life, and academic achievement: the role of daytime tiredness, behavioral persistence, and school start times. Journal of Adolescence, 36(2), 311–318.

  63. Phelps, G., Corey, D., DeMonte, J., Harrison, D., & Ball, L. D. (2012). How much english language arts and mathematics instruction do students receive? investigating variation in instructional time. Educational Policy, 26(5), 631–662.

  64. Provasnik, S., Kastberg, D., Ferraro, D., Lemanski, N., Roey, S., & Jenkins, F. (2012). Highlights from TIMSS 2011: mathematics and science achievement of US fourth-and eighth-grade students in an international context. NCES 2013–009. Washington: National Center for Education Statistics.

  65. Rideout, V. J., Foeh, U. G., & Roberts, D. F. (2010). Generation M2: media in the lives of 8- to 18-year-olds. Menlo Park: Kaiser Family Foundation.

  66. Roberts, R. E., Roberts, C. R., & Duong, H. T. (2009). Sleepless in adolescence: prospective data on sleep deprivation, health and functioning. Journal of Adolescence, 32(5), 1045–1057.

  67. Romer, D., Bagdasarov, Z., & More, E. (2013). Older versus newer media and the well-being of united states youth: results from a national longitudinal panel. Journal of Adolescent Health, 52(5), 613–619.

  68. Shochat, T., Cohen-Zion, M., & Tzischinsky, O. (2014). Functional consequences of inadequate sleep in adolescents: a systematic review. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 18(1), 75–87.

  69. Short, M. A., Gradisar, M., Wright, H., Lack, L. C., Dohnt, H., & Carskadon, M. A. (2011). Time for bed: parent-set bedtimes associated with improved sleep and daytime functioning in adolescents. Sleep, 34(6), 797.

  70. EA Staff (2013). Plants vs. Zombies 2 sprouts big numbers. http://www.ea.com/news/plants-vs-zombies-2-sprouts-big-numbers.

  71. Stavropoulos, V., Alexandraki, K., & Motti-Stefanidi, F. (2013). Recognizing internet addiction: prevalence and relationship to academic achievement in adolescents enrolled in urban and rural Greek high schools. Journal of Adolescence, 36(3), 565–576.

  72. Tamim, R. M., Bernard, R. M., Borokhovski, E., Abrami, P. C., & Schmid, R. F. (2011). What 40 years of research says about the impact of technology on learning: a second-order meta-analysis and validation study. Review of Educational Research, 81(1), 4–28.

  73. Thompson, S., Provasnik, S., Kastberg, D., Ferraro, D., Lemanski, N., Roey, S., et al. (2012). Highlights from PIRLS 2011: reading achievement of US fourth-grade students in an international context. NCES 2013–010. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

  74. Vandewater, E. A., Rideout, V. J., Wartella, E. A., Huang, X., Lee, J. H., & Shim, M.-s. (2007). Digital childhood: electronic media and technology use among infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. Pediatrics, 119(5), e1006–e1015.

  75. Weinstein, A., & Weizman, A. (2012). Emerging association between addictive gaming and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Current Psychiatry Reports, 14(5), 590–597.

  76. Weis, R., & Cerankosky, B. C. (2010). Effects of video-game ownership on young boys’ academic and behavioral functioning: a randomized, controlled study. Psychological Science, 21(4), 463–470.

  77. Wethington, H., Pan, L., & Sherry, B. (2013). The association of screen time, television in the bedroom, and obesity among school-aged youth: 2007 national survey of children’s health. Journal of School Health, 83(8), 573–581.

  78. Zhao, Y. (2012). Numbers can lie: what TIMSS and PISA truly tell us, if anything? http://zhaolearning.com/2012/12/11/numbers-can-lie-what-timss-and-pisa-truly-tell-us-if-anything/.

  79. Zickuhr, K. (2013). Tablet ownership 2013. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Meilan Zhang.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Zhang, M., Tillman, D.A. & An, S.A. Global prevalence of sleep deprivation in students and heavy media use. Educ Inf Technol 22, 239–254 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-015-9440-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Sleep deprivation
  • Media use
  • Game play
  • Academic performance
  • School-aged youth