Investigational New Drugs

, Volume 36, Issue 2, pp 206–216 | Cite as

Antitumor activity of raloxifene-targeted poly(styrene maleic acid)-poly (amide-ether-ester-imide) co-polymeric nanomicelles loaded with docetaxel in breast cancer-bearing mice

  • Saeede Enteshari
  • Jaleh Varshosaz
  • Mohsen Minayian
  • Farshid Hassanzadeh


Purpose Raloxifene (RA) receptors have over-expressed GPER-positive breast cancer tumors. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the antitumor activity and pharmacokinetic behavior of docetaxel (DTX), loaded in RA-targeted nanomicelles, which were designed to overcome a lack of specific distribution and inadequate DTX concentration in tumor tissues, as well as its cytotoxicity and damage to normal tissues. Methods DTX-loaded RA-targeted poly(styrene maleic acid) (SMA)- poly(amide-ether-esterimide)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PAEEI-PEG) nanomicelles were prepared; then, their antitumor activity and survival rate were studied in MC4-L2 tumors induced in BALB/c mice. The pharmacokinetics of DTX-loaded SMA-PAEEI-PEG-RA micelles was also investigated in comparison with free DTX. Results DTX-loaded SMA-PAEEI-PEG-RA micelles inhibited tumor growth considerably and increased animal survival as compared to free DTX and non-targeted micelles. SMA-PAEEIPEG-RA micelles enhanced significantly the area under the curve (AUC0-∞) 1.3 times as compared to free DTX and reduced clearance (CL) from 410.43 ml/kg.h (for free DTX) to 308.8 ml/kg.h (for SMA-PAEEI-PEG-RA micelles). Volume of distribution (Vdss) was also reduced 1.4 times as compared to free DTX. RA-targeted micelles increased tumor inhibition rate (TIR) 1.3 times and median survival time (MST) >1.5 times compared to free DTX. Percentage increase in life span (%ILS) was also enhanced significantly from 41.66% to >83.33% in MC4-L2 tumor-bearing BALB/c mice. Discussion All studies in this work showed the potential of DTX-loaded SMA-PAEEI-PEG-RA micelles in the treatment of GPER-positive receptor breast cancer tumors.


Poly(styrene maleic acid) poly(amide-ether-ester-imide)-poly(ethylene glycol) targeted micelles raloxifene docetaxel 



Financial support of the project by the Research Vice Chancellery of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences is appreciated. The authors gratefully appreciate the technical assistance of Dr. Mohajeri and MS Mahmoodi in doing immunohistochemical tests.


This study was funded by grant number 394283 of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Saeede Enteshari declares that she has no conflict of interest. Jaleh Varshosaz declares that she has no conflict of interest. Mohsen Minayian declares that he has no conflict of interest. Farshid Hassanzadeh declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy and Novel Drug Delivery Systems Research CentreIsfahan University of Medical SciencesIsfahanIran
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacology, School of PharmacyIsfahan University of Medical SciencesIsfahanIran
  3. 3.Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of PharmacyIsfahan University of Medical SciencesIsfahanIran

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