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A phase 1 open-label, sequential dose-escalation study investigating the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of intravenous TLC388 administered to patients with advanced solid tumors


Purpose The first-in-human phase 1 trial examined the dose-limiting toxicities (DLT), maximum tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetic profile, and antitumor activity of TLC388, a novel camptothecin with a unique lactone ring modification, in patients with advanced solid tumors. Experimental design TLC388 was administered intravenously to patients with metastatic chemotherapy refractory solid tumors on days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28-day cycle. Patients underwent tumor assessments every other cycle. Pharmacokinetic samples were drawn on days 1, 8, and 15 of cycles 1 and 2. Results Fifty-four patients were enrolled at doses ranging from 1.5 to 60.0 mg/m2 over 12 cohorts. Treatment was generally well-tolerated and no cumulative toxicity observed. Two of six patients treated at 60.0 mg/m2 developed DLTs of grade 3 neutropenia causing dose delay and grade 3 febrile neutropenia. The next lower dose, 50.0 mg/m2, was declared as MTD. Treatment-related grade 3–4 hematologic toxicities included neutropenia (19 %), leukopenia (15 %), anemia (9 %), and thrombocytopenia (7 %). Grade 3–4 nonhematologic toxicities included diarrhea (2 %) and hyponatremia (4 %). Pharmacokinetics of both diastereomers (S,R and S,S) of TLC388, a mixture of two diastereomers, was dose independent; mean (SD) values for the volume of distribution at steady-state and clearance were 857 (1122) L/m2 for S,R and 996 (1333) L/m2 for S,S, and 2174 (2526) L/h-m2 for S,R and 2670 (2988) L/h-m2 for S,S, respectively. The half-life values averaged 0.67 (1.15) hours for S,R and 0.64 (1.11) hours for S,S. The best overall response was stable disease in 21 (39 %) patients. Prolonged (≥ 6 months) stable disease was noted in eight patients. Conclusions TLC388 at 50 mg/m2 on the current treatment schedule is generally safe and well tolerated.

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Conflict of interest

Yunlong Tseng, Min-Wen Kuo, Wendy B. Mach, and Shu-Chi Hsu are the employees of the study sponsor (Taiwan Liposome Company, Inc.). The remaining authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Correspondence to Sanjay Goel.

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Sharad Ghamande and Chia-Chi Lin contributed equally to this work.

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Ghamande, S., Lin, CC., Cho, D.C. et al. A phase 1 open-label, sequential dose-escalation study investigating the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of intravenous TLC388 administered to patients with advanced solid tumors. Invest New Drugs 32, 445–451 (2014).

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  • Camptothecin
  • Topotecan
  • Phase 1 trial
  • Hypoxia-inducible factor
  • Topoisomerase