Our aim was to compare the electroretinographic (ERG) responses of two eyes obtained by consecutive unilateral recordings to those obtained by a simultaneous bilateral recording in sheep.
Eight sheep underwent two full-field ERG recordings, using two recording strategies of the standard ISCEV protocol: consecutive unilateral recordings of one eye after the other, and simultaneous bilateral recording of both eyes. The order of recording strategy within an animal (unilateral/bilateral), eye recording sequence in the unilateral session (OD/OS), and amplifier channel assignment for each eye were all randomized. To test whether duration of dark adaptation and/or anesthesia affect the results, the ISCEV protocol was recorded bilaterally in six additional eyes following 38 min of patched dark adaptation, as was done for the second eye recorded in the consecutive unilateral recordings.
The second recorded eye in the unilateral session had significantly higher scotopic b-wave amplitudes compared to the first recorded eye and to the bilaterally recorded eyes. A-wave amplitudes of the dark-adapted mixed rod–cone responses to a high-intensity flash were also significantly higher in the second eye compared to the first eye recorded unilaterally and to the bilaterally recorded eyes. Light-adapted responses were unaffected by the recording strategy. When the ISCEV protocol was recorded after 38 min of dark adaptation, the scotopic responses were higher than in the first eyes, and similar to those of the second eyes recorded unilaterally, suggesting that indeed the longer duration of anesthesia and dark adaptation are responsible for the increased scotopic responses of the second eye.
Consecutive unilateral ERG recordings of two eyes result in higher amplitudes of the dark-adapted responses of the eye recorded second, compared to the eye recorded first and to bilaterally recorded eyes. The differences in scotopic responses can be attributed to different duration of dark adaptation and/or anesthesia of the two consecutively recorded eyes. Photopic responses are not affected. Therefore, simultaneous bilateral ERG responses should be recorded when possible, especially for evaluation of scotopic responses.
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This study was funded by the Israel Science Foundation (Grant 1257/15).
Conflict of interest
RO received speaker honoraria from OcuScience.
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted.
Statement of human rights
This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.
Statement on the welfare of animals
All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Volcani Center Animal Care and Use Committee and conformed with the ARVO Statement for the use of animals.
Informed consent was not applicable.
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Ross, M., Honig, H., Ezra-Elia, R. et al. Consecutive unilateral recording of the two eyes affects dark-adapted ERG responses, when compared to simultaneous bilateral recording. Doc Ophthalmol 137, 183–192 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10633-018-9661-y
- Electroretinography (ERG)
- Dark-adapted responses