Skip to main content

Hierarchical modelling of manufacturing systems using discrete event systems and the conflict preorder

Abstract

This paper introduces Hierarchical Interface-Based Supervisory Control using the Conflict Preorder and applies it to the design of two manufacturing systems models of practical scale. Hierarchical Interface-Based Supervisory Control decomposes a large system into subsystems linked to each other by interfaces, facilitating the design of complex systems and the re-use of components. By ensuring that each subsystem satisfies its interface consistency conditions locally, it can be ensured that the complete system is controllable and nonblocking. The interface consistency conditions proposed in this paper are based on the conflict preorder, providing increased flexibility over previous approaches. The framework requires only a small number of interface consistency conditions, and allows for the design of multi-level hierarchies that are provably controllable and nonblocking.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10

References

  • Åkesson K, Fabian M, Flordal H, Malik R (2006) Supremica—an integrated environment for verification, synthesis and simulation of discrete event systems. In: Proceedings 8th International Workshop on Discrete Event Systems, WODES ’06. Ann Arbor, MI, pp 384–385

  • de Alfaro L, Henzinger TA (2001) Interface automata. In: Proceedings of the 9th ACM SIGSOFT international symposium on Foundations of Software Engineering 2001. Vienna, pp 109–120

  • Barrett G, Lafortune S (2000) Decentralized supervisory control with communicating controllers. IEEE Trans Autom Control 45(9):1620–1638

    Article  MATH  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  • Brandin B, Charbonnier F (1994) The supervisory control of the automated manufacturing system of the AIP. In: Proceedings Rensselaer’s 4th international conference computer integrated manufacturing and automation technology. Troy, pp 319–324

  • Brandin BA,Malik R,Malik P (2004) Incremental verification and synthesis of discrete-event systems guided by counter-examples. IEEE Trans Control Sys Tech 12(3):387–401 doi:10.1109/TCST.2004.824795

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bruegge B, Dutoit AH (2004) Object-Oriented Software Engineering Using UML, Patterns, and Java, 2nd edn. Pearson Prentice Hall

  • Dai P (2006) Synthesis method for hierarchical interface-based supervisory control. Master’s thesis, Department of Computing and Software, McMaster University, Hamilton. http://www.cas.mcmaster.ca/%7Eleduc

  • De Nicola R, Hennessy MCB (1984) Testing equivalences for processes. Theor Comput Sci 34(1–2):83–133. doi:10.1016/0304-3975(84)90113-0

    Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  • Fabian M (1995) On object oriented nondeterministic supervisory control. Ph.D. thesis, Chalmers University of Technology. Göteborg. https://publications.lib.chalmers.se/cpl/record/index.xsql?pubid=1126

    Google Scholar 

  • Feng L, Wonham WM (2006) Computationally efficient supervisor design: abstraction and modularity. In: Proceedings of the 8th international Workshop on Discrete Event Systems, WODES ’06. Ann Arbor, pp 3–8

  • Feng L, Wonham WM (2010) On the computation of natural observers in discrete-event systems. Discrete Event Dyn Syst 20(1):63–102

    Article  MATH  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  • Flordal H, Malik R (2009) Compositional verification in supervisory control. SIAM J Control Optim 48(3):1914–1938. doi:10.1137/070695526

    Article  MATH  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  • Harel D (1987) Statecharts: a visual formalism for complex systems. Sci Comput Program 8(3):231–274

    Article  MATH  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  • Hill RC, Cury JER, de QueirozMH, Tilbury DM, Lafortune S (2010) Multi-level hierarchical interface-based supervisory control. Autom 46(7):1152–1164. doi:10.1016/j.automatica.2010.04.002

    Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  • Hoare CAR (1985) Communicating Sequential Processes. Prentice-Hall

  • Leduc R DESpot —unlock the DES potential. http://www.cas.mcmaster.ca/%7Eleduc/DESpot.html

  • Leduc RJ (2002) Hierarchical interface-based supervisory control. Ph.D. thesis, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Toronto. Canada. http://www.cas.mcmaster.ca/leduc

  • Leduc RJ (2009) Hierarchical interface-based supervisory control with data events. Int J Control 82(5):783–800. doi:10.1080/00207170802291411

    Article  MATH  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  • Leduc RJ, Brandin BA, Lawford M, Wonham WM (2005a) Hierarchical interface-based supervisory control—part I: Serial case. IEEE Trans Autom Control 50(9):1322–1335

    Article  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  • Leduc RJ, Lawford M, Wonham WM (2005b) Hierarchical interface-based supervisory control—part II: Parallel case. IEEE Trans Autom Control 50(9):1336–1348

    Article  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  • Leduc RJ, Dai P, Song R (2009) Synthesis method for hierarchical interface-based supervisory control. IEEE Trans Autom Control 54(7):1548–1560

    Article  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  • Lin F, Wonham WM (1990) Decentralized control and coordination of discrete-event systems with partial observation. IEEE Trans Autom Control 35(12):1330–1337

    Article  MATH  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  • Ma C, Wonham WM (2005) Nonblocking supervisory Control of State Tree Structures, LNCIS, vol. 317. Springer

  • Malik R (2010) The language of certain conflicts of a nondeterministic process. Working Paper 05/2010, Department of Computer Science, University of Waikato. Hamilton

  • Malik R, Flordal H, Pena PN (2007) Conflicts and projections In: Proceedings of the 1st IFAC Workshop on Dependable Control of Discrete Systems, DCDS ’07. Paris, pp 63–68

  • Malik R., Leduc R. (2012) Hierarchical interface-based supervisory control using the conflict preorder. In: Proceedings of the 11th International workshop on discrete event systems, WODES ’12. Guadalajara, pp 163–168

  • Malik R, Leduc R (2013) Compositional nonblocking verification using generalised nonblocking abstractions. IEEE Trans Autom Control 58(8):1–13. doi:10.1109/TAC.2013.2248255

    Article  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  • Malik R, Streader D, Reeves S (2006) Conflicts and fair testing. Int J Found Comput Sci 17(4):797–813. doi:10.1142/S012905410600411X

    Article  MATH  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  • Mitchell R, McKim J (2001) Design by contract, by example. Addison-Wesley

  • Moor T, Baier C, Wittmann T (2013) Consistent abstractions for the purpose of supervisory control. In: Proceedings of the 52nd IEEE conference decision and control, CDC 2013. Firenze, pp 7291–7296

  • Parnas DL (1972) On the criteria to be used in decomposing systems into modules. Commun ACM 15(12):1053–1058. doi:10.1145/361598.361623

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • de Queiroz MH, Cury JER (2000) Modular supervisory control of large scale discrete event systems. In: Proceedings of the 5th international workshop on discrete event systems, WODES’00. Ghent, pp 103–110

  • Ramadge PJG, Wonham WM (1989) The control of discrete event systems. Proceedings of the IEEE 77(1):81–98

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rudie K, Wonham W (1992) Think globally, act locally: decentralized supervisory control. IEEE Trans Autom Control 37(11):1692–1708

    Article  MATH  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  • Schmidt K, Breindl C (2011) Maximally permissive hierarchical control of decentralized discrete event systems. IEEE Trans Autom Control 56(4):723–737

    Article  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  • Song R (2006) Symbolic synthesis and verification of hierarchical interface-based supervisory control. Master’s thesis, Department of Computing and Software. McMaster University. Hamilton. http://www.cas.mcmaster.ca/%7Eleduc

    Google Scholar 

  • Teixeira M, Cury JER, de Queiroz MH (2011) Local modular supervisory control of DES with distinguishers. In: Proceedings of the 16th IEEE international conference on emerging technologies and factory automation, ETFA’11. Toulouse, pp 1–8

  • Wang B (1995) Top-down design for RW supervisory control theory. Master’s thesis, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Toronto. Canada

  • Ware S, Malik R (2011) A state-based characterisation of the conflict preorder. In: Proceedings of the 10th international workshop on the foundations of coordination languages and software architectures, FOCLASA 2011. Aachen, pp 34–48. doi:10.4204/EPTCS.58.3

  • Ware S, Malik R (2012) Conflict-preserving abstraction of discrete event systems using annotated automata. Discret Event Dyn Syst 22(4):451–477. doi:10.1007/s10626-012-0133-3

    Article  MATH  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  • Wong KC, Wonham WM (1996) Hierarchical control of discrete-event systems. Discret Event Dyn Syst 6(3):241–273

    Article  MATH  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  • Wong KC, Wonham WM (1998) Modular control and coordination of discrete-event systems. Discret Event Dyn Syst 8(3):247–297

    Article  MATH  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  • Wong KC, Wonham WM (2004) On the computation of observers in discrete-event systems. Discret Event Dyn Syst 14(1):55–107

    Article  MATH  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  • Wonham WM (2009). Supervisory control of discrete-event systems. Systems Control Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Toronto. Canada. at http://www.control.utoronto.edu/DES/

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Robi Malik.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Malik, R., Leduc, R. Hierarchical modelling of manufacturing systems using discrete event systems and the conflict preorder. Discrete Event Dyn Syst 25, 177–201 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10626-014-0185-7

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10626-014-0185-7

Keywords