The competing ontologies of belonging: race, class, citizenship, and Sierra Leone’s “Lebanese Question”

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Notes

  1. 1.

    “‘We want our full citizenship right’ – Nasser Ayoub,” Sierra Express Media, 24 August 2010. http://www.sierraexpressmedia.com/?p=12974. “Nasser Ayoub may have a point – Info minister,” Sierra Express Media, 11 September 2010. http://www.sierraexpressmedia.com/?p=13487.

  2. 2.

    “‘We want our full citizenship right’ – Nasser Ayoub,” Sierra Express Media, 24 August 2010. http://www.sierraexpressmedia.com/?p=12974.

  3. 3.

    “‘We want our full citizenship right’ – Nasser Ayoub,” Sierra Express Media, 24 August 2010. http://www.sierraexpressmedia.com/?p=12974.

  4. 4.

    “‘We want our full citizenship right’ – Nasser Ayoub,” Sierra Express Media, 24 August 2010.

    http://www.sierraexpressmedia.com/?p=12974.

  5. 5.

    The term “negro African” is used as cited in Chapter I, “Citizenship,” Constitution of Sierra Leone, 1961, as amended by Act No. 12 of 1962 (17 March 1962), reprinted under Act 1 of 1966 (27 October 1967). See also Manby 2009, pp. 12–13.

  6. 6.

    Rodney Edmond Michael, “Sierra Leone: Are we a racist nation?” Cocorioko, 12 September 2010. http://www.cocorioko.net//?p=2340.

  7. 7.

    “‘We want our full citizenship right’ – Nasser Ayoub,” Sierra Express Media, 24 August 2010.

    http://www.sierraexpressmedia.com/?p=12974.

  8. 8.

    Rodney Edmond Michael, “Sierra Leone: Are we a racist nation?” Cocorioko, 12 September 2010. http://www.cocorioko.net//?p=2340.

  9. 9.

    Rodney Edmond Michael, “Sierra Leone: Are we a racist nation?” Cocorioko, 12 September 2010. http://www.cocorioko.net//?p=2340. See also Oswald Hanciles, “Black Racism Cannot Help Rebrand Us,”

    Concord Time (Freetown), 29 June 2011, on Michael’s background. http://www.allafrica.com/stories/201106300970.html.

  10. 10.

    The term “negro African” is used as cited in Chapter I, “Citizenship,” Constitution of Sierra Leone, 1961, as amended by Act No. 12 of 1962 (17 March 1962), reprinted under Act 1 of 1966 (27 October 1967).

  11. 11.

    The term “negro African” is used as cited in Chapter I, “Citizenship,” Constitution of Sierra Leone, 1961, as amended by Act No. 12 of 1962 (17 March 1962), reprinted under Act 1 of 1966 (27 October 1967).

  12. 12.

    For instance, van der Laan (1975) defines the Lebanese occupationally even in the title of his book. Wikipedia lists “Lebanese merchants” as one of Sierra Leone’s many ethnic groups. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethnic_groups_in_Sierra_Leone.

  13. 13.

    The term “negro African” is used as cited in Chapter I, “Citizenship,” Constitution of Sierra Leone, 1961, as amended by Act No. 12 of 1962 (17 March 1962), reprinted under Act 1 of 1966 (27 October 1967).

  14. 14.

    The Weekly News (Freetown), 14 June 1919.

  15. 15.

    The Weekly News (Freetown), 21 June 1919.

  16. 16.

    Sierra Leone, Report of Census for the Year 1931 (Freetown: Government Printer, 1931).

  17. 17.

    Colony of Sierra Leone, Report and Summary of the Census of 1911 (London: Waterlow & Sons, Ltd.,

    1912).

  18. 18.

    See “French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon,” The American Journal of International Law, vol. 17, no. 3, Supplement: Official Documents (Jul., 1923), pp. 177–182.

  19. 19.

    Sierra Leone, Report of Census for the Year 1931 (Freetown: Government Printer, 1931).

  20. 20.

    Sierra Leone, Report of Census for the Year 1931 (Freetown: Government Printer, 1931).

  21. 21.

    Sierra Leone Census Office, 1963 Population Census of Sierra Leone, vol. 2, (Freetown: Central Statistics Office, 1965). These figures appear to indicate “ethnic” nationality as defined by census enumerators. The census methodology noted that “no attempt was made to secure information in line with any legal concept of nationality.”

  22. 22.

    See for instance the Sierra Leone Aliens Registration Ordinance, No. 20 of 1924 (1 January 1925).

  23. 23.

    Sierra Leone Non-Native Poll Tax Ordinance, No. 28 of 1931 (28 November 1931). The Creoles were considered to be “native” for tax purposes, but as noted previously, this designation did not pertain to the census.

  24. 24.

    The Weekly News (Freetown), 14 October 1911.

  25. 25.

    The Weekly News (Freetown), 23 August 1919.

  26. 26.

    Home Office records, National Archives, London, UK.

  27. 27.

    The cases featured in the Sierra Leone Law Recorder demonstrate this vividly. See Sierra Leone Law Recorder, vol. I (Freetown: Government Printer, 1931); Sierra Leone Law Recorder, vol. II (Freetown: Government Printer, 1934); Sierra Leone Law Recorder, vol. III (Freetown: Government Printer, 1949).

  28. 28.

    On liberal citizenship in the European context, see Brubaker 1992, and Beiner 1995.

  29. 29.

    Chapter I, “Citizenship,” Constitution of Sierra Leone of 1961 (27 April 1961).

  30. 30.

    Chapter I, “Citizenship,” Constitution of Sierra Leone of 1961 (27 April 1961).

  31. 31.

    Chapter I, “Citizenship,” Constitution of Sierra Leone, 1961, as amended by Act No. 12 of 1962 (17 March 1962), reprinted under Act 1 of 1966 (27 October 1967). See also Manby 2009, pp. 56-66.

  32. 32.

    The term “negro African” is used as cited in Chapter I, “Citizenship,” Constitution of Sierra Leone, 1961, as amended by Act No. 12 of 1962 (17 March 1962), reprinted under Act 1 of 1966 (27 October 1967).

  33. 33.

    The term “negro African” is used as cited in Chapter I, “Citizenship,” Constitution of Sierra Leone, 1961, as amended by Act No. 12 of 1962 (17 March 1962), reprinted under Act 1 of 1966 (27 October 1967).

  34. 34.

    The term “negro African” is used as cited in Chapter I, “Citizenship,” Constitution of Sierra Leone, 1961, as amended by Act No. 12 of 1962 (17 March 1962), reprinted under Act 1 of 1966 (27 October 1967).

  35. 35.

    Chapter I, “Citizenship,” Constitution of Sierra Leone, 1961, as amended by Acts No. 10 and No. 12 of 1962 (17 March 1962), reprinted under Act 1 of 1966 (27 October 1967). Act No. 10, “An Act Relating to Nationality and Citizenship of Sierra Leone,” defined the procedure for registration, while Act No. 12 restricted registration to individuals “whose father and … father’s father are or were negroes of African origin.”

  36. 36.

    See Chapter I, “Citizenship,” Constitution of Sierra Leone, 1961, as amended by Act No. 12 of 1962 (17 March 1962), reprinted under Act 1 of 1966 (27 October 1967). See also Manby 2009, p. 142.

  37. 37.

    Act No. 10 of 1962 (17 March 1962), retroactive commencement, 27 April 1961.

  38. 38.

    The term “negro African” is used as cited in Chapter I, “Citizenship,” Constitution of Sierra Leone, 1961,

    as amended by Act No. 12 of 1962 (17 March 1962), reprinted under Act 1 of 1966 (27 October 1967).

  39. 39.

    The Non-Citizens (Registration, Immigration and Expulsion) Act (Act 14), 1965 (1 June 1965); The Non-Citizens (Restriction of Retail Trade) Act (Act 9), 1965 (1 October 1965); The Non-Citizens (Restriction of Trade or Business) Act (Act 30), 1965 (1 October 1965).

  40. 40.

    “John Joseph Akar v. Attorney-General of Sierra Leone,” Journal of African Law, vol. 13, no. 2 (Summer, 1969), pp. 103–116; here, p. 104.

  41. 41.

    John Joseph Akar v. Attorney-General of Sierra Leone,” Journal of African Law, vol. 13, no. 2 (Summer, 1969), pp. 103–116; here, p. 104.

  42. 42.

    John Joseph Akar v. Attorney-General of Sierra Leone,” Journal of African Law, vol. 13, no. 2

    (Summer, 1969), pp. 103–116; here, p. 104.

  43. 43.

    John Joseph Akar v. Attorney-General of Sierra Leone,” Journal of African Law, vol. 13, no. 2 (Summer, 1969), pp. 103–116; here, p. 104.

  44. 44.

    Chapter II, “Protection of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms of the Individual,” Section 23,

    Constitution of Sierra Leone of 1961 (27 April 1961).

  45. 45.

    “John Joseph Akar v. Attorney-General,” Journal of African Law, vol. 12, no. 2 (Summer, 1968), pp. 89–109; here, p. 90.

  46. 46.

    “John Joseph Akar v. Attorney-General,” Journal of African Law, vol. 12, no. 2 (Summer, 1968), pp. 89–109; here, p. 90.

  47. 47.

    “John Joseph Akar v. Attorney-General,” Journal of African Law, vol. 12, no. 2 (Summer, 1968), pp. 89–109; here, p. 90.

  48. 48.

    “John Joseph Akar v. Attorney-General of Sierra Leone,” Journal of African Law, vol. 13, no. 2 (Summer, 1969), pp. 103–116; here, p. 106.

  49. 49.

    The term “negro African” is used as cited in Chapter I, “Citizenship,” Constitution of Sierra Leone, 1961, as amended by Act No. 12 of 1962 (17 March 1962), reprinted under Act 1 of 1966 (27 October 1967).

  50. 50.

    See Part II, Section 6, Sierra Leone Citizenship Act, 1973 (24 May 1973).

  51. 51.

    The term “negro African” is used as cited in Chapter I, “Citizenship,” Constitution of Sierra Leone, 1961, as amended by Act No. 12 of 1962 (17 March 1962), reprinted under Act 1 of 1966 (27 October 1967).

  52. 52.

    Sierra Leone Citizenship Act, 1973 (24 May 1973), as amended by the Sierra Leone Citizenship

    (Amendment) Act, 1976 (26 August 1976).

  53. 53.

    Sierra Leone Citizenship Act, 1973 (24 May 1973), as amended by the Sierra Leone Citizenship

    (Amendment) Act, 1976 (26 August 1976).

  54. 54.

    See also, “Fradulent and Illegal [sic] Acquired; High Court may force James Cullen to surrender passport,” Standard Times Press, 11 June 2016. http://standardtimespress.org/?p=2171.

  55. 55.

    See Sierra Leone Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Witness to Truth: Report of the Sierra Leone

    Truth and Reconciliation Commission (Volumes I–III) (GPL Press, Freetown and Accra, 2004). http://www.sierraleonetrc.org.

  56. 56.

    Sierra Leone Government, 1985 Census and Population of Housing, vol. 1, Summary Results

    (Freetown: Central Statistics Office, 1992).

  57. 57.

    Rebecca Murray, “Lebanon fears Ebola virus,” Al Jazeera, 15 Sep 2014. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2014/09/lebanon-fears-ebola-virus-201491511124652991.html.

  58. 58.

    Population estimate for 2014 provided by the World Bank. http://data.worldbank.org/country/Sierra-Leone.

  59. 59.

    Oswald Hanciles, “Black Racism Cannot Help Rebrand Us,” Concord Time (Freetown), 29 June 2011. http://www.allafrica.com/stories/201106300970.html.

  60. 60.

    Rodney Edmond Michael, “ID cards and naturalization policies are racist and discriminatory – Govt must stop human rights violations now!” Sierra Express Media, 21 May 2010. http://www.sierraexpressmedia.com/?p=24099.

  61. 61.

    Rodney Edmond Michael, “ID cards and naturalization policies are racist and discriminatory – Govt must stop human rights violations now!” Sierra Express Media, 21 May 2010. http://www.sierraexpressmedia.com/?p=24099.

  62. 62.

    Murtala Mohamed Kamara, “Nasser Ayoub appeals to President Koroma,” Sierra Leone Express

    Media, 15 May 2012. http://www.sierraexpressmedia.com/?p=40672.

  63. 63.

    “‘We want our full citizenship right’ – Nasser Ayoub,” Sierra Express Media, 24 August 2010. http://www.sierraexpressmedia.com/?p=12974.

  64. 64.

    “Nasser Ayoub may have a point – Info minister,” Sierra Express Media, 11 September 2010. http://www.sierraexpressmedia.com/?p=13487. See Sierra Leone Truth and Reconciliation Commission,

    Witness to Truth: Report of the Sierra Leone Truth and Reconciliation Commission (Volumes I–III) (GPL

    Press, Freetown and Accra, 2004), Volume II, Chapter 3, “Recommendations,” esp. Section 37, “The Commission calls for a new and equitable citizenship in Sierra Leone,” and Section 38, “The Commission proposes that Sierra Leone should consider the creation of a new Constitution.” See http://www.sierraleonetrc.org. See also Constitutional Review Committee, http://www.constitutionalreview.gov.sl.

  65. 65.

    Constitutional Review Committee. http://www.constitutionalreview.gov.sl.

  66. 66.

    Editayo Temple, “Majority Leader raps members of the JABC and Nassar [sic] Ayoub,” Sierra Express

    Media, 25 September 2010. http://www.sierraexpressmedia.com/?p=14067.

  67. 67.

    Aruna Turay, “In Sierra Leone, Lebanese President Disclaims Citizenship Agitator,” Awareness Times,

    6 September 2010. http://news.sl/drwebsite/exec/view.cgi?archive=6&num=16228.

  68. 68.

    Aruna Turay, “In Sierra Leone, Lebanese President Disclaims Citizenship Agitator,” Awareness Times,

    6 September 2010. http://news.sl/drwebsite/exec/view.cgi?archive=6&num=16228.

  69. 69.

    Aruna Turay, “In Sierra Leone, Lebanese President Disclaims Citizenship Agitator,” Awareness Times,

    6 September 2010. http://news.sl/drwebsite/exec/view.cgi?archive=6&num=16228.

  70. 70.

    Aruna Turay, “In Sierra Leone, Lebanese President Disclaims Citizenship Agitator,” Awareness Times,

    6 September 2010. http://news.sl/drwebsite/exec/view.cgi?archive=6&num=16228.

  71. 71.

    Nasser Ayoub comment on Jad Aoun, “Sierra Leonean Citizenship: Nasser Ayoub Sets the Record Straight,” Lebanon News: Under Rug Swept, 15 September 2010. http://www.jadaoun.com/2331/sierra-leonean-citizenship-nasser-ayoub-set-the-record-straight/.

  72. 72.

    Abdulai Bundu Conteh, 23 September 2010, comment on “Nasser Ayoub may have a point – Info minister,” Sierra Express Media, 11 September 2010. http://www.sierraexpressmedia.com/?p=13487.

  73. 73.

    Rodney Edmond Michael, 12 September 2010 comment on “Reviewing the Citizenship Law: a

    warning,” Cocorioko, 9 September 2010. http://www.cocorioko.net/?p=2275.

  74. 74.

    Rodney Edmond Michael, 12 September 2010 comment on “Reviewing the Citizenship Law: a warning,” Cocorioko, 9 September 2010. http://www.cocorioko.net/?p=2275.

  75. 75.

    Rodney Edmond Michael, 15 September 2010 comment on Rodney Edmond Michael, “Sierra Leone: Are we a racist nation?” Cocorioko, 12 September 2010. http://www.cocorioko.net//?p=2340.

  76. 76.

    Rodney Edmond Michael, 12 September 2010 comment on “Reviewing the Citizenship Law: a warning,” Cocorioko, 9 September 2010. http://www.cocorioko.net/?p=2275.

  77. 77.

    Oswald Hanciles, “Black Racism Cannot Help Rebrand Us,” Concord Time (Freetown), 29 June 2011. http://www.allafrica.com/stories/201106300970.html.

  78. 78.

    The term “negro African” is used as cited in Chapter I, “Citizenship,” Constitution of Sierra Leone, 1961, as amended by Act No. 12 of 1962 (17 March 1962), reprinted under Act 1 of 1966 (27 October 1967).

  79. 79.

    The Domestic and Expatriate Nationals Investment (DENI) Programme (2010). African Development Bank, The Role of Diaspora in Nation-Building: Lessons for Fragile and Post-Conflict Countries in Africa (2011).

  80. 80.

    The Sierra Leone Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2006 (26 October 2006).

  81. 81.

    Alhaji Amadu Deen Tejan-Sie, “The Misconception of the Sierra Leone Citizenship (Amendment) Act

    2006,” Awareness Times, 1 April 2011. http://news.sl/drwebsite/exec/view.cgi?archive=7&num=17626.

  82. 82.

    The term “negro African” is used as cited in Chapter I, “Citizenship,” Constitution of Sierra Leone, 1961, as amended by Act No. 12 of 1962 (17 March 1962), reprinted under Act 1 of 1966 (27 October 1967).

  83. 83.

    Wilfred Kabs Konu, “The Lebanese are Sierra Leone’s partners-in-progress,” Cocorioko, 12 September

    2010. http://www.cocorioko.net//?p=2362.

  84. 84.

    Murtala Mohamed Kamara, “Pademba Prison gets Christmas ‘Samba’ from Nasser Ayoub,” Sierra

    Express Media, 23 November 2011. http://www.sierraexpressmedia.com/?p=32549.

  85. 85.

    Mohamed H.S. Bangura, “The Sierra Leone Citizenship Law under Review,” Makoni Times Sierra Leone News, 3 March 2016. https://makonitimes.com/2016/03/03/foreign-protagonist-nasser-ayoub-assaulting-our-citizenship-law-claiming-it-is-racist/.

  86. 86.

    Sewanu Kponou, “Salone Citizenship – Compare and Contrast,” Sierra Express Media, 19 November

    2010. http://www.sierraexpressmedia.com/archives/16521.

  87. 87.

    ‘Atomic Pen,’ “Should the Lebanese Born in Sierra Leone be Granted Citizenship?” Sierra Express

    Media, 11 March 2016. http://www.sierraexpressmedia.com/?p=77614.

  88. 88.

    ‘Atomic Pen,’ “Should the Lebanese Born in Sierra Leone be Granted Citizenship?” Sierra Express

    Media, 11 March 2016. http://www.sierraexpressmedia.com/?p=77614.

  89. 89.

    ‘Atomic Pen,’ “Should the Lebanese Born in Sierra Leone be Granted Citizenship?” Sierra Express

    Media, 11 March 2016. http://www.sierraexpressmedia.com/?p=77614.

  90. 90.

    Gibril Koroma, “Sierra Leone: Uproar over citizenship,” Digital Journal, 4 September 2010. http://www.digitaljournal.com/article/297077.

  91. 91.

    Oswald Hanciles, “Black Racism Cannot Help Rebrand Us,” Concord Time (Freetown), 29 June 2011. http://www.allafrica.com/stories/201106300970.html. Rodney Edmond Michael, “Sierra Leone: Are we a racist nation?” Cocorioko, 12 September 2010. http://www.cocorioko.net//?p=2340.

  92. 92.

    Rodney Edmond Michael, “Sierra Leone: Are we a racist nation?” Cocorioko, 12 September 2010.

    http://www.cocorioko.net//?p=2340.

  93. 93.

    “Mustapha,” 15 September 2010 comment on Jad Aoun, “Sierra Leonean Citizenship: Nasser Ayoub Sets the Record Straight,” Lebanon News: Under Rug Swept, 15 September 2010. http://www.jadaoun.com/2331/sierra-leonean-citizenship-nasser-ayoub-set-the-record-straight/.

  94. 94.

    Nasser Ayoub, 21 September 2010 comment on “Nasser Ayoub may have a point – Info minister,”

    Sierra Express Media. http://www.sierraexpressmedia.com/?p=13487.

  95. 95.

    The term “negro African” is used as cited in Chapter I, “Citizenship,” Constitution of Sierra Leone, 1961, as amended by Act No. 12 of 1962 (17 March 1962), reprinted under Act 1 of 1966 (27 October 1967).

  96. 96.

    Abdul Rashid Thomas, “Big changes to the Constitution of Sierra Leone announced,” Sierra Leone

    Telegraph, 17 February 2016. http://www.thesierraleonetelegraph.com/?p=11715.

  97. 97.

    Constitutional Review Committee. http://www.constitutionalreview.gov.sl/

  98. 98.

    Abdul Rashid Thomas, “Big changes to the Constitution of Sierra Leone announced,” Sierra Leone

    Telegraph, 17 February 2016. http://www.thesierraleonetelegraph.com/?p=11715.

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Malki, I.P.X. The competing ontologies of belonging: race, class, citizenship, and Sierra Leone’s “Lebanese Question”. Dialect Anthropol 41, 343–366 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10624-017-9470-9

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Keywords

  • Lebanese
  • Sierra Leonean
  • Sierra Leone People’s Party (SLPP)
  • African Negroes
  • Freetown