Designs, Codes and Cryptography

, Volume 86, Issue 4, pp 803–815 | Cite as

Combinatorial constructions of packings in Grassmannian spaces

  • Tao Zhang
  • Gennian GeEmail author


The problem of packing n-dimensional subspaces of m-dimensional Euclidean space such that these subspaces are as far apart as possible was introduced by Conway, Hardin and Sloane. It can be seen as a higher dimensional version of spherical codes or equiangular lines. In this paper, we first give a general construction of equiangular lines, and then present a family of equiangular lines with large size from direct product difference sets. Meanwhile, for packing higher dimensional subspaces, we give three constructions of optimal packings in Grassmannian spaces based on difference sets and Latin squares. As a consequence, we obtain many new classes of optimal Grassmannian packings.


Grassmannian packing Equiangular line Difference set Latin square 

Mathematics Subject Classification

Primary: 52C17 Secondary: 14M15 94B60 



The authors express their gratitude to the anonymous reviewers for their detailed and constructive comments which are very helpful to the improvement of the presentation of this paper. Research supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11431003 and 61571310, Beijing Hundreds of Leading Talents Training Project of Science and Technology, and Beijing Municipal Natural Science Foundation.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mathematical SciencesCapital Normal UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.School of Mathematical SciencesZhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina
  3. 3.Beijing Center for Mathematics and Information Interdisciplinary SciencesBeijingChina

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