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Incidence of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth and Symptoms After 7 Days of Proton Pump Inhibitor Use: A Study on Healthy Volunteers

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Abstract

Introduction

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are commonly prescribed drugs. Chronic PPI use has recently been associated with the risk for developing small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). It is not known whether the short-term prescription of a PPI can trigger SIBO. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence of SIBO and gastrointestinal symptoms after 7 days of PPI use.

Materials and Methods

A prospective, pilot, open-label study was conducted on asymptomatic healthy volunteers. The incidence of SIBO was evaluated at the baseline and after administration of 40 mg of pantoprazole once a day for 7 days, through a glucose breath test. In addition, the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms, the number of bowel movements, and the consistency of stools, according to the Bristol scale, were assessed.

Results

Thirty-eight healthy subjects (71.1% women, mean age 25.18 ± 6.5 years) were analyzed. The incidence of SIBO after 7 days of PPI administration was 7.8% (95% CI 1.6–21.3%). The patients that developed SIBO had a greater prevalence of bloating (p = 0.0002) and flatulence (p = 0.004) after 7 days of treatment.

Conclusions

Our study showed that a short-term 7-day PPI course produced SIBO in 7.8% of healthy subjects. Although, inappropriate use of PPIs should be discouraged, but since more than 90% of subjects who received PPIs for one week did not develop SIBO, the advantages of PPI administration seem to outweigh the disadvantages.

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Funding

No specific grants were received from public sector agencies, the business sector, or nonprofit organizations in relation to this study.

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Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

JMRT acts as guarantor of the article. CDR and JMRT wrote the paper. JMRT, JAVRV, and MAB designed the research study and analyzed the data. CDR, BAPP, LAMJ, EMC, ATR, and CAAR performed the research and collected the data. All authors approved the final version of the article, including the authorship list.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to José María Remes-Troche.

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Conflict of interest

JMRT has served as advisory board for Takeda, Asofarma, and Biocodex, and is also a speaker for Takeda, Asofarma, Alfasigma, Carnot, Chinoin, Medtronic, Ferrer, and Sanofi. MAB and JAVRV are speakers for Takeda and Asofarma. CDR has received and educational grant form Medtronic. BAPP, LAMJ, EMC, ATR, and CAAR do not have conflict of interest.

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Protection of human and animal subjects: The authors declare that no experiments were performed on humans or animals for this study. Confidentiality of data: The authors declare that no patient data appear in this article.

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Durán-Rosas, C., Priego-Parra, B.A., Morel-Cerda, E. et al. Incidence of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth and Symptoms After 7 Days of Proton Pump Inhibitor Use: A Study on Healthy Volunteers. Dig Dis Sci 69, 209–215 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10620-023-08162-2

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10620-023-08162-2

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