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Assessment of Body Weight Changes in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Initiating Biologic Therapy: A Prospective Cohort Study

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Abstract

Background

Prior studies have inconsistently suggested that biologic therapy may be associated with weight gain in inflammatory bowel disease patients (IBD). Our aim was to compare weight gain across different biologic therapy classes with distinct mechanisms of action.

Methods

This prospective cohort study recruited patients with moderate to severe IBD initiating outpatient biologic therapy with anti-TNF (infliximab, adalimumab), vedolizumab, or ustekinumab. Weight measurements were performed at weeks 0, 14, 30, and 54. Changes in weight between baseline and each of the follow-up visits were modeled as a continuous variable, and multivariate regression assessed the independent effect of therapeutic class on this outcome.

Results

Our study enrolled 269 patients (163 CD, 106 UC) initiating biologic therapy [99 anti-TNF (37%), 122 vedolizumab (45%), 48 ustekinumab (18%)]. From baseline, the weight significantly increased at week 14 with a mean of 0.36 kg (± 3.8 kg, p = 0.004) and continued to increase compared to baseline with 0.96 kg (± 3.9 kg, p < 0.001) and 1.29 kg (± 4.2 kg, p < 0.001) at week 30 and 54, respectively. On univariate and multivariable analysis, no significant differences between any of the biologic therapies for weight gain were seen at any time point (weight gain anti-TNF: 0.31 kg, 1.06 kg, 1.33 kg; VDZ: 0.30 kg, 0.83 kg, 1.10 kg; UST: 0.63 kg, 1.21 kg, 2.31 kg at wk 14, wk 30, and wk 54, respectively). None of the disease activity parameters showed any statistical association with weight gain.

Conclusion

There was no difference in weight gain among the different biologic therapeutic classes.

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Funding

Dr. Ananthakrishnan has served on advisory boards for Abbvie, Takeda, and Merck. He is supported by research funding from the Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation, National Institutes of Health, Chleck Family Foundation, and Pfizer.

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Authors

Contributions

NZB acquired and analyzed the data and wrote the manuscript. WT contributed to data management. AJ and PJ acquired the data. JG, JL, FP, and HK provided guidance and feedback regarding the overall study. ANA designed the research study, supervised the study, acquired and analyzed the data, and wrote the manuscript. All authors read and commented on the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ashwin N. Ananthakrishnan.

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All authors declare that they have no relevant conflicts of interest related to the current manuscript.

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Borren, N.Z., Tan, W., Jess, A.T. et al. Assessment of Body Weight Changes in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Initiating Biologic Therapy: A Prospective Cohort Study. Dig Dis Sci 65, 3672–3678 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10620-020-06442-9

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10620-020-06442-9

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