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Diet and the Human Gut Microbiome: An International Review

Abstract

This review summarizes the key results of recently published studies on the effects of dietary change and nutritional intervention on the human microbiome from around the world, focusing on the USA, Canada, Europe, Asia, and Africa. It first explores mechanisms that might explain the ability of fiber-rich foods to suppress the incidence and mortality from westernized diseases, notably cancers of the colon, breast, liver, cardiovascular, infectious, and respiratory diseases, diabetes, and obesity (O’Keefe in Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 4(12):984–996, 2019; Am J Clin Nutr 110:265–266, 2019). It summarizes studies from Africa which suggest that disturbance of the colonic microbiome may exacerbate chronic malnutrition and growth failure in impoverished communities and highlights the importance of breast feeding. The American section discusses the role of the microbiome in the swelling population of patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes and examines the effects of race, ethnicity, geography, and climate on microbial diversity and metabolism. The studies from Europe and Asia extoll the benefits of whole foods and plant-based diets. The Asian studies examine the worrying changes from low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets to high-fat, low-carbohydrate ones and the increasing appearance of westernized diseases as in Africa and documents the ability of high-fiber traditional Chinese diets to reverse type 2 diabetes and control weight loss. In conclusion, most of the studies reviewed demonstrate clear changes in microbe abundances and in the production of fermentation products, such as short-chain fatty acids and phytochemicals following dietary change, but the significance of the microbiota changes to human health, with the possible exception of the stimulation of butyrogenic taxa by fiber-rich foods, is generally implied and not measured. Further studies are needed to determine how these changes in microbiota composition and metabolism can improve our health and be used to prevent and treat disease.

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Correspondence to Stephen J. D. O’Keefe.

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ASW, CC, and SJO report research support from the NIH. KRK, CAF, and ZTM report research support from the NIH and Mayo Clinic outside of this work. FRS reports research support from the NIH outside of this work. All other authors have no conflict of interest to disclose.

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Wilson, A.S., Koller, K.R., Ramaboli, M.C. et al. Diet and the Human Gut Microbiome: An International Review. Dig Dis Sci 65, 723–740 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10620-020-06112-w

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Keywords

  • Diet
  • Microbiome
  • Metabolome
  • Fiber
  • Fat
  • Colon cancer
  • Obesity
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Westernized diseases
  • Prebiotics
  • Probiotics
  • Short-chain fatty acids
  • Bile acids