García-Planella E, Marín L, Domènech E, et al. Use of complementary and alternative medicine and drug abuse in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Med Clin (Barc). 2007;128:45–48. (in Spanish).
Lal S, Prasad N, Ryan M, et al. Cannabis use amongst patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;23:891–896.
RavikoffAllegretti J, Courtwright A, Lucci M, Korzenik JR, Levine J. Marijuana use patterns among patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2013;19:2809–2814.
Ahmed Waseem, Katz Seymour. Therapeutic use of cannabis in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y). 2016;12:668–679.
Hoffenberg EJ, Newman H, Collins C, Tarbell S, Leinwand K. Cannabis and pediatric inflammatory bowel disease: change blossoms a mile high. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2017;64:265–271.
Kerlin A, Long M, Kappelman M, Martin C, Sandler R. Profiles of patients who use marijuana for inflammatory bowel disease. Dig Dis Sci. 2018;63:1600–1604. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10620-018-5040-5.
Hanus LO. Pharmacological and therapeutic secrets of plant and brain (endo)cannabinoids. Med Res Rev. 2009;29:213–271.
Morrison PD, Zois V, McKeown DA, et al. The acute effects of synthetic intravenous Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol on psychosis, mood and cognitive functioning. Psychol Med. 2009;39:1607–1616.
Burstein S. Cannabidiol (CBD) and its analogs: a review of their effects on inflammation. Bioorg Med Chem. 2015;23:1377–1385.
Morgan CJA, Schafer G, Freeman TP, et al. Impact of cannabidiol on the acute memory and psychotomimetic effects of smoked cannabis: naturalistic study: naturalistic study [corrected]. Br J Psychiatry J Mental Sci. 2010;197:285–290.
Russo EB, Jiang HE, Li X, et al. Phytochemical and genetic analyses of ancient cannabis from Central Asia. J Exp Bot. 2008;59:4171–4182.
Russo EB. Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;163:1344–1364.
Howlett AC, Barth F, Bonner TI, et al. International Union of Pharmacology. XXVII. Classification of cannabinoid receptors. Pharmacol Rev. 2002;54:161–202.
Turcotte C, Chouinard F, Lefebvre JS, Flamand N. Regulation of inflammation by cannabinoids, the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol and arachidonoyl-ethanolamide, and their metabolites. J Leukoc Biol. 2015;97:1049–1070.
McPartland JM, Guy GW, Di Marzo V. Care and feeding of the endocannabinoid system: a systematic review of potential clinical interventions that upregulate the endocannabinoid system. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e89566.
Leinwand KL, Gerich ME, Hoffenberg EJ, Collins CB. Manipulation of the endocannabinoid system in colitis: a comprehensive review. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2017;23:192–199.
Pi S, Rosenfeld G, Enns R, et al. Patterns and motivations of cannabis use amongst patients with inflammatory bowel disease. GastroHep. 2019;1:100–107.
Weiss A, Friedenberg F. Patterns of cannabis use in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a population based analysis. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015;1:6–11.
Storr M, Devlin S, Kaplan GG, Panaccione RAC. Cannabis use provides symptom relief in patients with inflammatory bowel disease but is associated with worse disease prognosis in patients with Crohn’s disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2014;20:472–480.
Mbachi C, Attar B, Wang Y, et al. Association between cannabis use and complications related to Crohn’s disease: a retrospective cohort study. Dig Dis Sci. (Epub ahead of print). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10620-019-05556-z.
Stith SS, Vigil JM, Brockelman F, Keeling K, Hall B. The association between cannabis product characteristics and symptom relief. Sci Rep. 2019;9:2712.
Naftali T, Bar-Lev Schleider L, Dotan I, Lansky EP, SklerovskyBenjaminov F, Konikoff FM. Cannabis induces a clinical response in patients with Crohn’s disease: a prospective placebo-controlled study. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013;11:1276-1280.e1. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2013.04.034.
Naftali T, Mechulam R, Marii A, et al. Low-dose cannabidiol is safe but not effective in the treatment for Crohn’s disease, a randomized controlled trial. Dig Dis Sci. 2017;62:1615–1620. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10620-017-4540-z.
Irving PM, Iqbal T, Nwokolo C, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, pilot study of cannabidiol-rich botanical extract in the symptomatic treatment of ulcerative colitis. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2018;24:714–724.