Adam RD. Biology of Giardia lamblia. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2001;14:447–475.
Muhsen K, Levine MM. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between Giardia lamblia and endemic pediatric diarrhea in developing countries. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55:S271–S293.
Painter EJ, Gargano JW, Collier SA, Yoder JS. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Giardiasis Surveillance: United States 2011–2012. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2015;64:15–25.
Lane S, Lloyd D. Current trends in research into the waterborne parasite Giardia. Crit Rev Microbiol. 2002;28:123–147.
Scallan E, Hoekstra RM, Angulo FJ, et al. Foodborne illness acquired in the United States—major pathogens. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:7–15.
Collier SA, Stockman LJ, Hicks LA. Direct healthcare costs of selected diseases primarily or partially transmitted by water. Epidemiol Infect. 2012;140:2003–2013.
Lebwohl B, Deckelbaum RJ, Green PHR. Giardiasis. Gastrointest Endosc. 2003;57:906–913.
DuPont HL. Persistent Diarrhea: a Clinical Review. Jama. 2016;315:2712–2723.
Canteu PT, Roy S, Lee B, et al. Study of nonoutbreak giardiasis: novel findings and implications for research. Am J Med. 2011;124:1175.e1–1175.e8.
Hellard ME, Sinclair MI, Hogg GG, Fairley CK. Prevalence of enteric pathogens among community based asymptomatic individuals. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2000;15:290–293.
Stolte M, Vogele-Dirks H. Giardiasis: a simple diagnosis that is often delayed. Z Gastroenterol. 1991;29:373–377.
Carr MF Jr, Ma J, Green PH. Giardia lamblia in patients undergoing endoscopy: lack of evidence for a role in nonulcer dyspepsia. Gastroenterology. 1988;95:972–974.
Furness BW, Beach MJ, Roberts JM. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) giardiasis surveillance: United States 1992–1997. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2000;11:1–13.
Hlavsa MC, Watson JC, Beach MJ. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) giardiasis surveillance: United States 1998–2002. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2005;54:9–16.
Yoder JS, Beach MJ, Roberts JM. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) giardiasis surveillance: United States 2003–2005. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2007;56:11–18.
Yoder JS, Harral C, Beach MJ. Giardiasis surveillance: United States, 2006–2008. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2010;59:15–25.
Yoder JS, Gargano JW, Wallace RM, Beach MJ. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) giardiasis surveillance: United States 2009–2010. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2012;61:13–23.
Marsh MN. Gluten, major histocompatibility complex, and the small intestine: a molecular and immunologic approach to the spectrum of gluten sensitivity (‘celiac sprue’). Gastroenterology. 1992;102:330–354.
Dixon MF, Genta RM, Yardley JH, et al. Classification and grading of gastritis: the updated Sydney System. International Workshop on the Histopathology of Gastritis, Houston 1994. Am J Surg Pathol. 1996;20:1161–1181.
Turner K, Genta RM, Sonnenberg A. Ethnic distribution of microscopic colitis in the United States. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2015;21:2634–2639.
Krigel A, Turner KO, Makharia GK, Green PHR, Genta RM, Lebwohl B. Ethnic variations in duodenal villous atrophy consistent with celiac disease in the United States. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016;14:1105–1111.
Elliott MN, Morrison PA, Fremont A, et al. Using the Census Bureau’s surname list to improve estimates of race/ethnicity and associated disparities. Health Serv Outcomes Res Methodol. 2009;9:69–83.
Elliot MN, Fremont A, Morrision PA, et al. A new method for estimating race/ethnicity and associated disparities where administrative records lack self-reported race/ethnicity. Health Serv Res. 2008;43:1722–1736.
Saunders CL, Abel GA, El Turabi A, et al. Accuracy of routinely recorded ethnic group information compared with self-reported ethnicity: evidence from the English Cancer Patient Experience survey. BMJ Open. 2013;3:e002882.
Mathur R, Bhaskaran K, Chaturvedi N, et al. Completeness and usability of ethnicity data in UK-based primary care and hospital databases. J Public Health. 2014;36:684–692.
Jensen ET, Shah ND, Hoffman K, Sonnenberg A, Genta RM, Dellon ES. Seasonal variation in detection of oesophageal eosiniphilia and eosinophilic oesphagitis. Alliment Pharmacol Ther. 2015;42:461–469.
US Census Bureau. Census of Population and Housing, 2010. Prepared by Social Explorer. Accessed July 2016.
Hall SA, Kaufman JS, Rickets TC. Defining urban and rural areas in US epidemiologic studies. J Urban Health Bull NY Acad Med. 2006;82:162–174.
Espelage W, an der Heiden M, Stark K, Alpers K. Characteristics and risk factors for symptomatic Giardia lamblia infections in Germany. BMC Public Health. 2010;10:41.
Laupland KB, Church DL. Population-based laboratory surveillance for Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. infections in a large Canadian health region. BMC Infect Dis. 2005;5:72.
European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Annual Epidemiological Report on Communicable Diseases in Europe 2008. Stockholm: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control; 2008.
European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Annual Epidemiological Report on Communicable Diseases in Europe 2010. Stockholm: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control; 2010.
Bernin H, Lotter H. Sex bias in the outcome of human tropical infectious diseases: influence of steroid hormones. J Infect Dis. 2014;209:S107–S113.
Humphreys H, Fitzpatick F, Harvey BJ. Gender differences in rates of carriage and bloodstream infection caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Are they real, do they matter and why? Clin Infect Dis. 2015;61:1708–1714.
Neyrolles O, Quintana-Murci L. Sexual inequality in tuberculosis. PLoS Med. 2009;6:e1000199.
Nhamoyebonde S, Leslie A. Biological differences between the sexes and susceptibility to tuberculosis. J Infect Dis. 2014;2014:S100–S106.
Schmerin MJ, Jones TC, Klein H. Giardiasis: association with homosexuality. Ann Intern Med. 1978;88:801–803.
Moolasart P. Giardia lamblia in AIDS patients with diarrhea. J Med Assoc Thai. 1999;82:654–659.
Esfandiari A, Swartz J, Teklehaimanot S. Clustering of giardiosis among AIDS patients in Los Angeles County. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 1997;43:1077–1083.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV at a glance [Internet]. Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral hepatitis, sexual transmitted diseases and tuberculosis prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/statistics/overview/ataglance.html. Accessed July 2016.
Zeyrek D, Zeyrek F, Cakmak A, Cekin A. Association of Helicobacter pylori and giardiasis in children with recurrent abdominal pain. Turkiye Parazitol Derg. 2008;32:4–7.
Moreira ED Jr, Nassri VB, Santos RS, Matos JF, de Carvalho WA, et al. Association of Helicobacter pylori infection and giardiasis: results from a study of surrogate markers for fecal exposure among children. World J Gastroenterol. 2005;11:2759–2763.
Ankarklev J, Hestvik E, Lebbad M, et al. Common coinfections of Giardia intestinalis and Helicobacter pylori in non-symptomatic ugandan children. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1780.
Doglioni C, De Boni M, Cielo R, et al. Gastric giardiasis. J Clin Pathol. 1992;45:964–967.
Du Y, Agnew A, Ye XP, Robinson PA, Forman D, et al. Helicobacter pylori and Schistosoma japonicum co-infection in a Chinese population: helminth infection alters humoral responses to H. pylori and serum pepsinogen I/II ratio. Microbes Infect. 2006;8:52–60.
Higgins PD, Johnson LA, Luther J, Zhang M, Sauder KL, et al. Prior Helicobacter pylori infection ameliorates Salmonella typhimurium-induced colitis: mucosal crosstalk between stomach and distal intestine. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2011;17:1398–1408.
Oberhuber G, Kastner N, Stolte M. Giardiasis: a histologic analysis of 567 cases. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1997;32:48–51.
Gillon J. Clinical studies in adults presenting with giardiasis to a gastro-intestinal unit. Scott Med J. 1985;30:89–95.