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Protective Effects of Garlic Extract, PMK-S005, Against Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs–Induced Acute Gastric Damage in Rats



PMK-S005 is synthetic s-allyl-l-cysteine (SAC), a sulfur-containing amino acid, which was initially isolated from garlic. The antioxidant and anti-inflammation activities of SAC have been demonstrated in diverse experimental animal models.


The purpose of this study was to investigate the gastroprotective effects of PMK-S005 against NSAIDs-induced acute gastric damage in rats.


Eight-week SD rats were pretreated with PMK-S005 (1, 5, or 10 mg/kg) or rebamipide (50 mg/kg) 1 h before administration of NSAIDs including aspirin (200 mg/kg), diclofenac (80 mg/kg), and indomethacin (40 mg/kg). After 4 h, the gross ulcer index, histological index, and gastric mucus level were determined. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), TNF-α, IL-1β, PGE2, and LTB4 levels were estimated in the gastric mucosal tissue by ELISA. Protein expressions of cPLA2, COX-1, and COX-2 were assessed by Western blot analysis.


Pretreatment with PMK-S005 significantly attenuated the NSAIDs-induced gastric damage and increased the gastric mucus level. In addition, PMK-S005 attenuated increases in MPO, TNF-α, and IL-1β production. The expressions of cPLA2 and COX-2 induced by NSAIDs were decreased by PMK-S005 pretreatment. PMK-S005 did not cause suppression of PGE2 synthesis induced by NSAIDs, but LTB4 production was significantly suppressed by PMK-S005. The effects of PMK-S005 were consistently maximized at a concentration of 5 mg/kg, which were frequently superior to those of rebamipide.


These results strongly suggest that PMK-S005 can be a useful gastroprotective agent against acute gastric mucosal damage by suppressing proinflammatory cytokines, down-regulating cPLA2, COX-2 and LTB4 expression, and increasing the synthesis of mucus.

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This work was supported by Chungcheong leading industry promotion project of the Korean Ministry of Knowledge Economy.

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None of the authors have any conflict of interest or financial arrangements that could potentially influence the described research.

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Correspondence to Nayoung Kim.

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Choi, Y.J., Kim, N., Lee, J.Y. et al. Protective Effects of Garlic Extract, PMK-S005, Against Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs–Induced Acute Gastric Damage in Rats. Dig Dis Sci 59, 2927–2934 (2014).

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  • s-allyl-l-cysteine (SAC)
  • Gastroprotection
  • Anti-inflammatory agent
  • Rat