Digestive Diseases and Sciences

, Volume 59, Issue 12, pp 2927–2934 | Cite as

Protective Effects of Garlic Extract, PMK-S005, Against Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs–Induced Acute Gastric Damage in Rats

  • Yoon Jeong Choi
  • Nayoung KimEmail author
  • Ju Yup Lee
  • Ryoung Hee Nam
  • Hyun Chang
  • Ji Hyung Seo
  • Kyu Keun Kang
  • Hee Jin Kim
  • Yun Jin Choi
  • Hye Seung Lee
  • Dong Ho Lee
Original Article



PMK-S005 is synthetic s-allyl-l-cysteine (SAC), a sulfur-containing amino acid, which was initially isolated from garlic. The antioxidant and anti-inflammation activities of SAC have been demonstrated in diverse experimental animal models.


The purpose of this study was to investigate the gastroprotective effects of PMK-S005 against NSAIDs-induced acute gastric damage in rats.


Eight-week SD rats were pretreated with PMK-S005 (1, 5, or 10 mg/kg) or rebamipide (50 mg/kg) 1 h before administration of NSAIDs including aspirin (200 mg/kg), diclofenac (80 mg/kg), and indomethacin (40 mg/kg). After 4 h, the gross ulcer index, histological index, and gastric mucus level were determined. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), TNF-α, IL-1β, PGE2, and LTB4 levels were estimated in the gastric mucosal tissue by ELISA. Protein expressions of cPLA2, COX-1, and COX-2 were assessed by Western blot analysis.


Pretreatment with PMK-S005 significantly attenuated the NSAIDs-induced gastric damage and increased the gastric mucus level. In addition, PMK-S005 attenuated increases in MPO, TNF-α, and IL-1β production. The expressions of cPLA2 and COX-2 induced by NSAIDs were decreased by PMK-S005 pretreatment. PMK-S005 did not cause suppression of PGE2 synthesis induced by NSAIDs, but LTB4 production was significantly suppressed by PMK-S005. The effects of PMK-S005 were consistently maximized at a concentration of 5 mg/kg, which were frequently superior to those of rebamipide.


These results strongly suggest that PMK-S005 can be a useful gastroprotective agent against acute gastric mucosal damage by suppressing proinflammatory cytokines, down-regulating cPLA2, COX-2 and LTB4 expression, and increasing the synthesis of mucus.


s-allyl-l-cysteine (SAC) Gastroprotection Anti-inflammatory agent Rat NSAID 



This work was supported by Chungcheong leading industry promotion project of the Korean Ministry of Knowledge Economy.

Conflict of interest

None of the authors have any conflict of interest or financial arrangements that could potentially influence the described research.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoon Jeong Choi
    • 1
  • Nayoung Kim
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • Ju Yup Lee
    • 1
  • Ryoung Hee Nam
    • 1
  • Hyun Chang
    • 1
  • Ji Hyung Seo
    • 1
  • Kyu Keun Kang
    • 1
  • Hee Jin Kim
    • 1
  • Yun Jin Choi
    • 1
  • Hye Seung Lee
    • 2
  • Dong Ho Lee
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Internal MedicineSeoul National University Bundang HospitalSeongnam Korea
  2. 2.Department of PathologySeoul National University Bundang HospitalSeongnamKorea
  3. 3.Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Research InstituteSeoul National University College of MedicineSeoulKorea

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