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Table 1 Microbiota differences determined in autism spectrum disorder subjects compared to control subjects

From: Does the Human Gut Microbiota Contribute to the Etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders?

Study group Methodology Significantly higher in ASD Significantly lower in ASD References
13 ASD, 8 CON Bacterial culture, feces Clostridium and Ruminococcus spp.   Finegold et al. [16]
15 ASD, 8 CON Quantitative PCR, feces Clostridium clusters I and XI, Clostridium bolteae   Song et al. [17]
58 ASD, 12 SIB,10 CON Fluorescent in situ hybridization, feces Clostridium histolyticum group (Clostridium clusters I and II)   Parracho et al. [10]
33 ASD, 7 SIB, 8 CON Pyrosequencing, feces Severe ASD (11 subjects) versus CON:
Phylum level: bacteroidetes and proteobacteria
Genus level: Alkaliflexus, Desulfovibrio, Acetanaerobacterium, Parabacteroides, Bacteroides
Severe ASD (11 subjects) versus CON:
Phylum level: firmicutes and actinobacteria
Genus level: 14 genera, most significant and abundant: Weissella, Turicibacter, Clostridium, Anaerofilum, Pseudoramibacter, Ruminococcus, Streptococcus
Finegold et al. [8]
23 ASD, 22 SIB, 9 CON Quantitative PCR, feces Bacteroides fragilis in ASD subjects with GI symptoms only (9 of 23) A. muciniphila (ASD and SIB); Bifidobacterium spp. (ASD only) Wang et al. [11]
58 ASD, 39 CON Bacterial culture, feces Lactobacillus spp.; Bacillus spp. Bifidobacterium spp., Enterococcus spp., Klebsiella oxytoca Adams et al. [14]
15 ASD with GI symptoms, 7 CON with GI symptoms Pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR, ileal and cecal biopsies Cumulative level of firmicutes + proteobacteria; Sutterella spp. bacteroidetes Williams et al. [9, 18]
  1. ASD Subjects with autism spectrum disorder, SIB non-autistic siblings, CON unrelated control subjects, GI gastrointestinal