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RETRACTED ARTICLE: HAX-1 Promotes the Chemoresistance, Invasion, and Tumorigenicity of Esophageal Squamous Carcinoma Cells

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This article was retracted on 12 July 2019

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HAX-1 is an anti-apoptotic factor and regulates the expression of DNA pol β. Interestingly, DNA polymerase pol β is overexpressed in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, the functional role of HAX-1 in ESCC remains unclear.


To investigate the role of HAX-1 in chemoresistance, invasion, and tumorigenicity of ESCC.


Lentivirus-mediated overexpression or knockdown of HAX-1 was employed to establish ESCC EC9706 cell lines that expressed HAX-1 at different levels. The biological behaviors of these engineered cells were characterized in vitro and in vivo using a xenograft nude mice model. In addition, HAX-1 and pol β expression in the tumor tissues was detected by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry.


HAX-1 overexpression promoted cell proliferation and resistance against cisplatin, increased cell invasion and suppressed apoptosis along with increased pol β expression. Conversely, HAX-1 knockdown inhibited the malignant phenotypes of EC9706 cells. The xenograft nude mice model demonstrated that HAX-1 overexpression or depletion led to increased or decreased tumor growth in vivo, respectively. Furthermore, a positive correlation of HAX-1 and pol β expression in the tumor tissues was observed.


HAX-1 promotes the proliferation, chemoresistance, invasion, and tumorigenicity of ESCC, and this is correlated with increased poly β expression. HAX-1 may represent a potential target to overcome the resistance and metastasis of ESCC.

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Change history

  • 12 July 2019

    The Editor-in-Chief has retracted this article [1] because Figure 3c appears to have been modified and reused as Figure 3d.

  • 12 July 2019

    The Editor-in-Chief has retracted this article [1] because Figure��3c appears to have been modified and reused as Figure��3d.


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We thank Dr. Zhi Huijun (NIH) for providing plasmids p∆8.2 and pVSV-G. We thank Biomedworld for providing a manuscript editing service.

Conflict of interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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Correspondence to Zi-ming Dong.

Additional information

The Editor-in-Chief has retracted this article because Figure 3c appears to have been modified and reused as Figure 3d. An investigation by Zhengzhou University has confirmed that this figure was modified and reused. The data reported in this article are therefore unreliable. None of the authors has responded to any correspondence from the editor and the publisher about this retraction.

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Sun, Sj., Feng, L., Zhao, Gq. et al. RETRACTED ARTICLE: HAX-1 Promotes the Chemoresistance, Invasion, and Tumorigenicity of Esophageal Squamous Carcinoma Cells. Dig Dis Sci 57, 1838–1846 (2012).

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