Digestive Diseases and Sciences

, Volume 57, Issue 5, pp 1190–1196 | Cite as

Increased Expression of VEGF, COX-2, and Ki-67 in Barrett’s Esophagus: Does the Length Matter?

  • Evanthia ZampeliEmail author
  • George Karamanolis
  • George Morfopoulos
  • Elias Xirouchakis
  • Vasiliki Kalampoki
  • Spyros Michopoulos
  • Sotiria Savva
  • Vasilios Tzias
  • Irene Zouboulis-Vafiadis
  • Dimitrios Kamberoglou
  • Spiros D. Ladas
Original Article



Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is a major complication of gastroesophageal reflux disease due to its neoplastic potential. The length of the metaplastic epithelium has been associated with cancer risk. Angiogenesis, inflammation, and increased cell proliferation are early events in the malignant sequence. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and Ki-67 are indirect markers of these complex mechanisms.


To examine the expression of VEGF, COX-2 and Ki-67 in BE and investigate whether there is an association to Barrett’s length.


Immunohistochemistry for VEGF, COX-2, and Ki-67 was performed in well-characterized Barrett’s samples, evaluated using a qualitative scale and compared between long (LSBE) and short (SSBE) segments.


The study population consisted of 98 patients (78 men). LSBE and SSBE was diagnosed in 33 (33.7%) and 65 (66.3%) cases, respectively. VEGF was expressed in vascular endothelium of all Barrett’s specimens. COX-2 and Ki-67 expression in metaplastic epithelia was strong in 81.6 and 61.2% of the samples, respectively. Ki-67 expression was significantly stronger in LSBE (p = 0.035), whereas VEGF expression was significantly increased in SSBE (p = 0.031). COX-2 expression was not associated with Barrett’s length.


VEGF, COX-2, and Ki-67 were overexpressed in the majority of Barrett’s samples. The length was inversely associated with VEGF expression and directly associated with Ki-67 expression.


Barrett’s esophagus Length VEGF COX-2 Ki-67 


Conflict of interest

No conflict of interest declared.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Evanthia Zampeli
    • 1
    Email author
  • George Karamanolis
    • 2
  • George Morfopoulos
    • 3
  • Elias Xirouchakis
    • 3
  • Vasiliki Kalampoki
    • 1
  • Spyros Michopoulos
    • 1
  • Sotiria Savva
    • 3
  • Vasilios Tzias
    • 3
  • Irene Zouboulis-Vafiadis
    • 2
  • Dimitrios Kamberoglou
    • 3
  • Spiros D. Ladas
    • 2
  1. 1.Gastroenterology DepartmentAlexandra General HospitalAthensGreece
  2. 2.Gastroenterology Division, First Department of Propaedeutic and Internal MedicineAthens University Medical School, Laikon HospitalAthensGreece
  3. 3.Gastroenterology and Pathology Department1st IKA HospitalAthensGreece

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