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Digestive Diseases and Sciences

, Volume 56, Issue 2, pp 499–505 | Cite as

The Role of Capsule Endoscopy in Suspected Celiac Disease Patients with Positive Celiac Serology

  • Ilmars LidumsEmail author
  • Adrian G. Cummins
  • Edward Teo
Original Article

Abstract

Background

Endomysial antibody (EMA) and tissue transglutaminase (tTG) antibody testing is used to screen subjects with suspected celiac disease. However, the traditional gold standard for the diagnosis of celiac disease is histopathology of the small bowel. As villous atrophy may be patchy, duodenal biopsies could potentially miss the abnormalities. Capsule endoscopy can obtain images of the whole small intestine and may be useful in the early diagnosis of celiac disease.

Aims

To evaluate suspected celiac disease patients who have positive celiac serology and normal duodenal histology and to determine, with capsule endoscopy, whether these patients have any endoscopic markers of celiac disease.

Methods

Twenty-two subjects with positive celiac serology (EMA or tTG) were prospectively evaluated. Eight of the subjects had normal duodenal histology and 14 had duodenal histology consistent with celiac disease. All subjects underwent capsule endoscopy. Endoscopic markers of villous atrophy such as loss of mucosal folds, scalloping, mosaic pattern, and visible vessels were assessed.

Results

Eight subjects with normal duodenal histology had normal capsule endoscopy findings. In the 14 subjects with duodenal histology that was consistent with celiac disease, 13 had celiac disease changes seen at capsule endoscopy. One subject with normal capsule endoscopy findings showed Marsh IIIc on duodenal histology. Using duodenal histology as the gold standard, capsule endoscopy had a sensitivity of 93%, specificity of 100%, PPV of 100%, and NPV of 89% in recognizing villous atrophy.

Conclusions

Capsule endoscopy is useful in the detection of villous abnormalities in untreated celiac disease. Patients with positive celiac serology (EMA or tTG) and normal duodenal histology are unlikely to have capsule endoscopy markers of villous atrophy.

Keywords

Celiac disease Celiac serology Capsule endoscopy 

Abbreviations

IgA-EMA

Endomysial IgA antibody

IgA-tTG

Tissue transglutaminase IgA antibody

EMA

Endomysial antibody

tTG

Tissue transglutaminase antibody

SEM

Standard error of the mean

PPV

Positive predictive value

NPV

Negative predictive value

Notes

Acknowledgments

Financial support: Given Imaging Ltd partially supported the study by supplying PillCam® SB capsules to perform the study and did not have any role in the design of the study, analysis, or writing of the article.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Gastroenterology and HepatologyThe Queen Elizabeth HospitalWoodville SouthAustralia

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