Digestive Diseases and Sciences

, Volume 51, Issue 2, pp 289–297 | Cite as

Less Irritative Action of Wine and Japanese Sake in Rat Stomachs: A Comparative Study with Ethanol

  • Akari Nakagiri
  • Kazuhiro Fukushima
  • Shinichi Kato
  • Koji TakeuchiEmail author
Esophageal, Gastric, and Duodenal Disorders


The ingestion of alcohol, especially in excess, causes acute gastric lesions and gastritis in humans, yet the mucosal irritative action of alcoholic beverages remains largely unknown. We examined the mucosal irritative action of whiskey, wine and Japanese sake in the rat stomach both ex vivo and in vitro, in comparison with ethanol. Under urethane anesthesia, a rat stomach was mounted in an ex vivo chamber, then superfused with saline, and the transmucosal potential difference (PD) was measured. After the basal PD had stabilized, the mucosa was exposed for 30 min to 2 ml of 15% ethanol, whiskey (containing 15% ethanol), white wine, or Japanese sake (the ethanol concentration of the latter two is 12–15%). In the in vitro study, rat epithelial cells (RGM1) were treated with the alcoholic beverages for 5 min, and the cell viability was determined with crystal violet. Ethanol or whiskey applied to the chamber caused a decrease in PD, while wine or Japanese sake did not. Histologically, surface epithelial damage was observed after exposure to both ethanol and whiskey, yet no damage was induced by white wine and Japanese sake. Likewise, both ethanol and whiskey markedly reduced the viability of RGM1 cells after 5 min of incubation, while neither white wine nor Japanese sake had any effect. In addition, supplementation of glucose significantly prevented the reduction in both PD and cell viability caused by ethanol. These results suggest that the mucosal irritative action of Japanese sake and white wine is much less pronounced than that of ethanol or whiskey and that the less damaging action of Japanese sake and white wine may be, at least partly, accounted for by the glucose contained in these alcoholic beverages.

Key Words

stomach mucosal irritative action ethanol alcoholic beverage nonalcoholic component glucose 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Akari Nakagiri
    • 1
  • Kazuhiro Fukushima
    • 1
  • Shinichi Kato
    • 1
  • Koji Takeuchi
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology and Experimental TherapeuticsKyoto Pharmaceutical UniversityKyotoJapan
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacology and Experimental TherapeuticsKyoto Pharmaceutical UniversityKyotoJapan

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