Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery

, Volume 33, Issue 5, pp 1417–1445 | Cite as

Finding lasting dense subgraphs

  • Konstantinos SemertzidisEmail author
  • Evaggelia Pitoura
  • Evimaria Terzi
  • Panayiotis Tsaparas
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Journal Track of ECML PKDD 2019


Graphs form a natural model for relationships and interactions between entities, for example, between people in social and cooperation networks, servers in computer networks, or tags and words in documents and tweets. But, which of these relationships or interactions are the most lasting ones? In this paper, we study the following problem: given a set of graph snapshots, which may correspond to the state of an evolving graph at different time instances, identify the set of nodes that are the most densely connected in all snapshots. We call this problem the Best Friends Forever (\(\text {BFF}\)) problem. We provide definitions for density over multiple graph snapshots, that capture different semantics of connectedness over time, and we study the corresponding variants of the \(\text {BFF}\) problem. We then look at the On–Off\(\text {BFF}\) (\(\textsc {O}^{\textsc {2}}\text {BFF}\)) problem that relaxes the requirement of nodes being connected in all snapshots, and asks for the densest set of nodes in at least k of a given set of graph snapshots. We show that this problem is NP-complete for all definitions of density, and we propose a set of efficient algorithms. Finally, we present experiments with synthetic and real datasets that show both the efficiency of our algorithms and the usefulness of the \(\text {BFF}\) and the \(\textsc {O}^{\textsc {2}}\text {BFF}\) problems.


Dense subgraphs Graph history Social networks 



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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Konstantinos Semertzidis
    • 1
    Email author
  • Evaggelia Pitoura
    • 1
  • Evimaria Terzi
    • 2
  • Panayiotis Tsaparas
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringUniversity of IoanninaIoanninaGreece
  2. 2.Department of Computer ScienceBoston UniversityBostonUSA

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