Efficient schedulability tests for real-time embedded systems with urgent routines

Abstract

Task scheduling is one of the key mechanisms to ensure timeliness in embedded real-time systems. Such systems have often the need to execute not only application tasks but also some urgent routines (e.g. error-detection actions, consistency checkers, interrupt handlers) with minimum latency. Although fixed-priority schedulers such as Rate-Monotonic (RM) are in line with this need, they usually make a low processor utilization available to the system. Moreover, this availability usually decreases with the number of considered tasks. If dynamic-priority schedulers such as Earliest Deadline First (EDF) are applied instead, high system utilization can be guaranteed but the minimum latency for executing urgent routines may not be ensured.

In this paper we describe a scheduling model according to which urgent routines are executed at the highest priority level and all other system tasks are scheduled by EDF. We show that the guaranteed processor utilization for the assumed scheduling model is at least as high as the one provided by RM for two tasks, namely \(2(\sqrt{2}-1)\). Seven polynomial time tests for checking the system timeliness are derived and proved correct. The proposed tests are compared against each other and to an exact but exponential running time test.

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Acknowledgements

This work was partially supported by the Brazilian funding agencies CAPES and CNPq.

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Correspondence to J. Augusto Santos Jr..

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Santos, J.A., Lima, G. & Bletsas, K. Efficient schedulability tests for real-time embedded systems with urgent routines. Des Autom Embed Syst 18, 19–38 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10617-013-9113-6

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Keywords

  • Real-time embedded systems
  • Schedulability analysis
  • Earliest Deadline First
  • Rate-Monotonic