Skip to main content

An optimization based design for integrated dependable real-time embedded systems


Moving from the traditional federated design paradigm, integration of mixed-criticality software components onto common computing platforms is increasingly being adopted by automotive, avionics and the control industry. This method faces new challenges such as the integration of varied functionalities (dependability, responsiveness, power consumption, etc.) under platform resource constraints and the prevention of error propagation. Based on model driven architecture and platform based design’s principles, we present a systematic mapping process for such integration adhering a transformation based design methodology. Our aim is to convert/transform initial platform independent application specifications into post integration platform specific models. In this paper, a heuristic based resource allocation approach is depicted for the consolidated mapping of safety critical and non-safety critical applications onto a common computing platform meeting particularly dependability/fault-tolerance and real-time requirements. We develop a supporting tool suite for the proposed framework, where VIATRA (VIsual Automated model TRAnsformations) is used as a transformation tool at different design steps. We validate the process and provide experimental results to show the effectiveness, performance and robustness of the approach.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. Pop P, Eles P, Peng Z, Pop T (2006) Analysis and optimization of distributed real-time embedded systems. ACM Trans Des Autom Electron Syst 11(3):593–625

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Rushby J (1999) Partitioning in avionics architectures: requirements, mechanisms, and assurance. SRI International, NASA/CR-1999-209347

  3. Jhumka A, Klaus S, Huss SA (2005) A dependability-driven system-level design approach for embedded systems. In: DATE, pp 372–377

  4. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli A, Martin G (2001) Platform-based design and software design methodology for embedded systems. IEEE Des Test 18(6):23–33

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Lee Y-H, Kim D, Younis M, Zhou J, McElroy J (2000) Resource scheduling in dependable integrated modular avionics. In: DSN, pp 14–23

  6. Younis MF, Aboutabl M, Kim D (2004) Software environment for integrating critical real-time control systems. J Syst Arch 50(11):649–674

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. ARINC (1991) Design guidance for integrated modular avionics. Aeronautical Radio Inc, ARINC Report 651

  8. AUTOSAR (2006) Technical overview V2.0.1. AUTOSAR GbR

  9. Kopetz H, Obermaisser R, Peti P, Suri N (2004) From a federated to an integrated architecture for dependable embedded real-time systems. Technical Report 22, Institut für Technische Informatik, Technische Universität Wien, Austria, Treitlstr. 1-3/182-1

  10. Peti P, Obermaisser R, Tagliabo F, Marino A, Cerchio S (2005) An integrated architecture for future car generations. In: ISORC, pp 2–13

  11. Berger A (2002) Embedded systems design: an introduction to processes, tools and techniques. CMP Books, USA

  12. OMG (2003) Model driven architecture (MDA), a technical perspective. OMG Document No ab/2001-02-04, Object Management Group

  13. Fernandez-Baca D (1989) Allocating modules to processors in a distributed system. IEEE Trans Softw Eng 15(11):1427–1436

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Garey MR, Johnson DS (1979) Computers and intractability: a guide to the theory of NP-completeness. Freeman, New York

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  15. Islam S, Lindström R, Suri N (2006) Dependability driven integration of mixed criticality SW components. In: ISORC, pp 485–495

  16. Balogh A, Varró D (2006) Advanced model transformation language constructs in the VIATRA2 framework. In: SAC, pp 1280–1287

  17. Ekelin C, Jonsson J (2001) Evaluation of search heuristics for embedded system scheduling problems. In: Constraint programming, pp 640–654

  18. Kuchcinski K (2003) Constraints-driven scheduling and resource assignment. ACM Trans Des Autom Electron Syst 8(3):355–383

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Wang S, Merrick JR, Shin KG (2004) Component allocation with multiple resource constraints for large embedded real-time software design. In: RTAS, pp 219–226

  20. Rajkumar R, Lee C, Lehoczky JP, Siewiorek DP (1998) Practical solutions for QoS-based resource allocation. In: RTSS, pp 296–306

  21. Ghosh S, Rajkumar R, Hansen J, Lehoczky J (2003) Scalable resource allocation for multi-processor QoS optimization. In: ICDCS, pp 174–183

  22. Kodase S, Wang S, Gu Z, Shin K (2003) Improving scalability of task allocation and scheduling in large distributed real-time systems using shared buffers. In: RTAS, pp 181–188

  23. Oh Y, Son SH (1994) Enhancing fault-tolerance in rate-monotonic scheduling. Real-Time Syst 7(3):315–329

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Kandasamy N, Hayes JP, Murray BT (1999) Tolerating transient faults in statically scheduled safety-critical embedded systems. In: SRDS, pp 212–221

  25. Yuan J, Pixley C, Aziz A (2006) Constraint-based verification. Springer, New York

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  26. Suri N, Ghosh S, Marlowe T (1998) A framework for dependability driven software integration. In: ICDCS, pp 406–415

  27. Mustafiz S, Kienzle J (2004) A survey of software development approaches addressing dependability. In: FIDJI, pp 78–90

  28. Effinger M, Miller C, Roll W, Sharp D, Stuart D (2001) Challenges and visions for model-based integration of avionics systems. In: DASC, vol 2, pp 9B5/1–9B5/12

  29. Yin X, Kiskis DL, Mihalik D, Shin KG (2006) Integration of an analysis tool for large-scale embedded real-time software into a vehicle control platform development tool chain. In: ESA, pp 53–59

  30. Kopetz H, Bauer G (2003) The time-triggered architecture. Proc IEEE 91(1):112–126

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Laprie J-C, Randell B (2004) Basic concepts and taxonomy of dependable and secure computing. IEEE Trans Dependable Secur Comput 1(1):11–33

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Kopetz H, Grünsteidl G (1994) TTP—a protocol for fault-tolerant real-time systems. Computer 27(1):14–23

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. The FlexRay Group (2005) FlexRay communications system protocol specification, version 2.1.

  34. Rao S (1996) Engineering optimization: theory and practice. Wiley-Interscience, New York

    Google Scholar 

  35. Balogh A, Pataricza A, Rácz J (2007) Scheduling of time-triggered embedded systems. In: EFTS, pp 44–49

  36. ILOG CPLEX (2007) Optimization tool.

  37. Islam S, Suri N (2007) A multi variable optimization approach for the design of integrated dependable real-time embedded systems. In: EUC. LNCS, vol 4808. Springer, Berlin, pp 517–530

    Google Scholar 

  38. Islam S, Omasreiter H (2005) Systematic use case interviews for specification of automotive systems. In: APSEC, pp 17–24

  39. Huber B, Obermaisser R, Peti P (2006) MDA-based development in the DECOS integrated architecture-modeling the hardware platform. In: ISORC, pp 43–52

  40. Object Management Group (OMG). Object constraint language 2.0 specification.

  41. Pataricza A, Polgár B, Gyapay S, Balogh A (2006) Formal checking of metamodels and models. In: DECOS/ERCIM workshop at SAFECOMP

  42. Kandl S, Kirner R, Fraser G (2006) Verification of platform-independent and platform-specific semantics of dependable embedded systems. In: WDES

  43. Kopetz H (1997) Real-time systems, design principles for distributed embedded applications. Kluwer Academic, Boston

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  44. Sadeh N, Fox MS (1996) Variable and value ordering heuristics for the job shop scheduling constraint satisfaction problem. Artif Intell 86(1):1–41

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Keichafer RM, Walter CJ, Finn AM, Thambidurai PM (1988) The MAFT architecture for distributed fault tolerance. IEEE Trans Comput 37(4):398–405

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Kopetz H, Damm A, Koza C, Mulazzani M, Schwabl W, Senft C, Zainlinger R (1989) Distributed fault-tolerant real-time systems: the Mars approach. IEEE Micro 9(1):25–40

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Claesson V, Poledna S, Soderberg J (1998) The XBW model for dependable real-time systems. In: ICPADS, pp 130–138

  48. Alstrom K, Torin J (2001) Future architecture for flight control systems. In: DASC, vol 1, pp 1B5/1–1B5/10

  49. Poledna S, Barrett P, Burns A, Wellings A (2000) Replica determinism and flexible scheduling in hard real-time dependable systems. IEEE Trans Comput 49(2):100–111

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Jhumka A, Hiller M, Suri N (2001) Assessing inter-modular error propagation in distributed software. In: SRDS, pp 152–161

  51. Punnekkat S, Burns A, Davis R (2001) Analysis of checkpointing for real-time systems. Real-Time Syst 20(1):83–102

    Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  52. Izosimov V, Pop P, Eles P, Peng Z (2005) Design optimization of time-and cost-constrained fault-tolerant distributed embedded systems. In: DATE, pp 864–869

  53. Ramamritham K (1995) Allocation and scheduling of precedence-related periodic tasks. IEEE Trans Parallel Distrib Syst 6(4):412–420

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Eles P, Peng Z, Pop P, Doboli A (2000) Scheduling with bus access optimization for distributed embedded systems. IEEE Trans Very Large Scale Integr Syst 8(5):472–491

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Liu JWS (2000) Real-time systems. Prentice Hall, New York

    Google Scholar 

  56. TTP-Tools (2007) TTP-tools SW development suite.

  57. Silva JL (2003) Metaheuristic and multiobjective approaches for space allocation. PhD thesis, University of Nottingham

  58. Rossi-Doria O, Paechter B (2003) An hyperheuristic approach to course timetabling problem using an evolutionary algorithm. Napier University, Scotland

    Google Scholar 

  59. Dongarra J, Jeannot E, Saule E, Shi Z (2007) Bi-objective scheduling algorithms for optimizing makespan and reliability on heterogeneous systems. In: SPAA, pp 280–288

  60. Eclipse Foundation.

  61. Ehrig H, Korff M, Löwe M (1991) Tutorial introduction to the algebraic approach of graph grammars based on double and single pushouts. In: Graph grammars and their application to computer science. LNCS, vol 532. Springer, Berlin, pp 24–37

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  62. SCADE Suite (2007) The standard for the development of safety-critical embedded software in the avionics industry.

  63. The MathWorks (2007) The MathWorks homepage.

  64. RapidRMA (2004)

  65. VEST (2004) Virginia embedded systems toolkit.

  66. AIRES-ToolKit (2001) Automatic integration of reusable embedded software.

  67. DECOS (2004) Dependable embedded components and systems, IST, EU FP 6.

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Neeraj Suri.

Additional information

This work has been partly supported by the EU IST FP6 DECOS.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Islam, S., Suri, N., Balogh, A. et al. An optimization based design for integrated dependable real-time embedded systems. Des Autom Embed Syst 13, 245–285 (2009).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Fault-tolerance
  • Real-time
  • Constraints
  • Mapping
  • Transformation