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Companion animals get close to the toxic aspects of antropogenic world: cytotoxicity of phthalates and bisphenol A on dog testicular primary cells


Phthalates, which are among the most abundant plasticizers, have detrimental effects on the reproductive system. Similar to human, dogs are prominently exposed to phthalates in daily routines at low concentrations; while toys, training devices and commercial dog foods are considered as the primary sources of exposure. This study aimed to reveal and compare the cytotoxic effects of selected phthalates (Benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), Diethyl phthalate (DEP), Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), Di-‘isobutyl’ phthalate (DIBP), Di-‘isodecyl’ phthalate (-DIDP) Di-‘isononyl’ phthalate (DINP), Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), Di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP)), and Bisphenol A (BPA) following 24 h exposure on primary testicular parenchymal cells of dog in vitro at concentrations between 0.001 and 2.5 nM. According to cytotoxicity results, DEHP was found to be the most toxic phthalate with IC50 at 22.53 µM; while DMP was the least (169.17 nM). IC50 of BPA was 161.81 nM, less than the average (61.95 nM) of phthalates. In addition, dog primary testicular cells were found more susceptible to the high molecular weight phthalates (DNOP, DEHP, DINP, DIDP) than low molecular weight phthalates (DMP, DEP, DIBP, BBP). Further studies should focus on morphological, physiological and molecular differences to comprehend the mechanisms involved as well as decreasing the risk for impaired spermatogenesis caused by environmental toxicants in companion animal medicine.

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We thank Ankara University Faculty of Veterinary Medicine for providing the infrastructure and chemicals for the analysis. All datasets used in this study are available upon request from the corresponding author.

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All the listed authors have made substantial contributions to the research design, analysis and interpretation of data and to drafting the paper and revising it critically.

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Correspondence to Begum Yurdakok-Dikmen.

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None of the authors has any conflict of interest to declare. There has been no financial support for this work that could have influenced its outcome.

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Tekin, K., Arslan, P., Cil, B. et al. Companion animals get close to the toxic aspects of antropogenic world: cytotoxicity of phthalates and bisphenol A on dog testicular primary cells. Cytotechnology 72, 629–638 (2020).

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  • Bisphenol A
  • Phthalates
  • Canine testicular cells
  • In vitro toxicity