Pig testis extract augments adiponectin expression and secretion through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes
Adiponectin is a key molecule whose upregulation may ameliorate symptoms of type 2 diabetes mellitus and disorders of lipid metabolism. Several plant-derived components have been shown to enhance adiponectin secretion; however, there have been no reports on the effects of animal-derived products. Therefore, in the current study, we investigated whether hot-water extracts of specific livestock by-products induce the expression of adiponectin in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Out of the 11 extracts tested, pig testis extract (PTE) was found to enhance adiponectin expression and secretion by 3T3-L1 cells. Furthermore, simultaneous treatment with PTE and daidzein, a soy phytoestrogen, synergistically enhanced adiponectin secretion. Moreover, pretreatment with an estrogen receptor β antagonist (PHTPP) diminished adiponectin secretion from daidzein-treated cells but not from PTE-treated cells. Transcriptome analyses revealed that both daidzein and PTE regulate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway, although differences in the regulation of gene expression were observed between PTE- and daidzein-treated cells. These results suggest that PTE ameliorates lipid metabolic dysfunction by promoting adipocyte differentiation and enhancing adiponectin secretion via a mechanism different from that of daidzein.
KeywordsPig testis extract Adiponectin PPAR 3T3-L1
The authors would like to thank Dr. K. Yasuda for her expert assistance with DNA microarray analysis and Dr. Y. Nishiyama for discussion and review of the article.
KK performed the research, MS and TM analyzed the data, SK performed informatics analysis, YK wrote the paper, TF designed the research study and wrote the paper.
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