Cytotechnology

, Volume 70, Issue 1, pp 449–463 | Cite as

All aspect of toxic effect of brilliant blue and sunset yellow in Allium cepa roots

Original Article

Abstract

Substances added to food are considerable for survival and are the oldest technologies used in preservation, sweetening and coloring. This work was conducted to evaluate the toxicity of the food additives sunset yellow (SY) and brilliant blue (BB) on Allium cepa root meristematic cells. Control and treatment groups were created from germinated roots. Group 1 (control group) did not receive chemicals. Group 2 (SY or BB-treatment group), received increasing doses of SY (25, 50, 100 and 500 ppm) and BB (100, 200, 400 and 500 ppm) with time periods of 24, 48 and 72 h. After different treatment periods, the roots were obtained from all groups and EC50 concentrations, cell death, chromosome aberrations, mitotic index were observed by a light microscopy. Changing antioxidant capacity of roots was determined by FRAP and TEAC assay. Also, DNA damage was measured by comet assay and RAPD–PCR technique. Approximately 50 and 200 ppm were accepted as EC50 value for SY and BB, respectively. Chromosome aberration values were obtained with increasing concentrations and longer treatment times such as chromosome bridge, C-mitosis, micronucleus, chromosome mis-segregation in both groups. Increasing exposure doses of SY and BB caused decreasing mitotic index values at 72 h. FRAP and TEAC assay showed that antioxidant capacity of roots was decreased by increasing concentrations of SY and BB. The tail DNA% and tail length significantly increased for all exposure times when compared to the control group. 50 and 200 ppm of SY and BB caused a genotoxic effect on genetic material at 72 h according to RAPD–PCR. Increasing the doses of SY and BB resulted in increased toxicity to all studied parameters of A. cepa. In conclusion, the SY and BB tested in this study have cytotoxic and mutagenic potential. Furthermore, SY is more harmful than BB for use in the A. cepa root meristematic cells.

Keywords

BB DNA damage RAPD–PCR Genotoxicty Allium test 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank to Fatih Oğuz Bekdemir for helping us to prepare this study.

References

  1. Aksakal O, Ertürka FA, Sunar S, Bozari S, Agar G (2013) Assessment of genotoxic effects of 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on maize by using RAPD analysis. Ind Crops Prod 42:552–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baker CJ, Mock NM (1994) An improved method for monitoring cell death in cell suspension and leaf disc assays using Evan’s blue. Plant Cell, Tissue Organ Cult 39:7–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barberio A, Voltolini JC, Mello MLS (2011) Standardization of bulb and root sample sizes for the Allium cepa test. Ecotoxicol 20:927–935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bastaki M, Farrell T, Bhusari S, Pant K, Kulkarni R (2017) Lack of genotoxicity in vivo for food color additive Tartrazine. Food Chem Toxicol 105:278–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Benzie IF, Strain JJ (1996) The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of antioxidant power: the FRAP assay. Anal Biochem 239:70–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bhagyanathan NK, Thoppil JE (2016) Pre-apoptotic activity of aqueous extracts of Cynanchum sarcomedium Meve & Liede on cells of Allium cepa and human erythrocytes. Protoplasma 253:1433–1438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dönbak L, Rencüzoğulları E, Topaktaş M (2002) The cytogenetic effects of the food additive boric acid in Allium cepa L. Cytologia 67:153–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fiskesjō G (1985) The Allium as a standard in environmental monitoring. Hereditas 102:99–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Garcia-Alonso M, Pascual-Teresa S, Santos-Buelga C, Rivas-Gonzalo JC (2004) Evaluation of the antioxidant properties of fruits. Food Chem 84:13–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gliszczynska-Swigło A (2006) Antioxidant activity of water soluble vitamins in the TEAC (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) and the FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) assays. Food Chem 96:131–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Grant WF (1982) Chromosome aberration assays in Allium. A report of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency gene-tox program. Mutat Res, Fundam Mol Mech Mutagen 99:273–291Google Scholar
  12. Guo C, Yang J, Wei J, Li Y, Xu J, Jiang Y (2003) Antioxidant activities of peel, pulp and seed fractions of common fruits as determined by FRAP assay. Nutr Res 23:1719–1726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hirose H, Sakuma N, Kaji N, Suhara T, Sekijima M, Nojima T, Miyakoshi J (2006) Phosphorylation and gene expression of p53 are not affected in human cells exposed to 2.1425 GHz band CW or W-CDMA modulated radiation allocated to mobile radio base stations. Bioelectromagnetics 27:494–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jimenez A, Selga A, Torres JL, Julià L (2004) Reducing activity of polyphenols with stable radicals of the TTM series. Electron transfer versus H-abstraction reactions in flavan-3-ols. Org Lett 6:4583–4586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lucová M, Hojerová J, Pazoureková S, Klimová Z (2013) Absorption of triphenylmethane dyes brilliant blue and patent blue through intact skin, shaven skin and lingual mucosa from daily life products. Food Chem Toxicol 52:19–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Nair B (2001) Final report on the safety assessment of benzyl alcohol, benzoic acid, and sodium benzoate. Int J Toxicol 20:23–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Njagi GDE, Gopalan HNB (1982) Cytogenetic effects of the food preservatives—sodium benzoate and sodium sulphite on Vicia faba root meristems. Mutat Res 102:213–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Özakça DU, Silah H (2013) Genotoxicity effects of flusilazole on the somatic cells of Allium cepa. Pestic Biochem Physiol 107:38–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Özkan D, Yüzbaşıoğlu D, Ünal F, Yılmaz S, Aksoy H (2009) Evaluation of the cytogenetic damage induced by the organophosphorous insecticide acephate. Cytotechnology 59:73–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Panda KK, Achary VMM, Krishnaveni R, Padhi BK, Sarangi SN, Sahu SN, Panda BB (2011) In vitro biosynthesis and genotoxicity bioassay of silver nanoparticles using plants. Toxicol In Vitro 25:1097–1105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Pandey H, Kumar V, Roy BK (2014) Assessment of genotoxicity of some common food preservatives using Allium cepa L. as a test plant. Toxicol Rep 1:300–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pandır D (2015) Protective effect of (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate on capsaicin-induced DNA damage and oxidative stress in human erythrocytes and leucocytes in vitro. Cytotechnology 67:367–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Pandır D (2016) DNA damage in human germ cell exposed to the some food additives in vitro. Cytotechnology 68:725–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Per S, Sümer-Ercan F (2015) Comparison of three methods of DNA extraction from Parachipteria willmanni (Acari: Oribatida) collected in Turkey. J Biotechnol Res 1:16–20Google Scholar
  25. Prior RL, Wu X, Schaich K (2005) Standardized methods for the determination of antioxidant capacity and phenolics in foods and dietary supplements. J Agric Food Chem 53:4290–4302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, Rice-Evans C (1999) Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radic Biol Med 26:1231–1237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rencüzoğulları E, İla HB, Kayraldız A, Topaktaş M (2001) Chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in cultured human lymphocytes treated with sodium metabisulfite a food preservative. Mutat Res Gen Toxicol Environ Mutagen 490:107–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ruiz-Cabello ML, Maisanaba S, Puerto M, Prieto AI, Pichardo S, Moyano R, Gonzalez-Perez JA, Camean AM (2016) Genotoxicity evaluation of carvacrol in rats using a combined micronucleus and comet assay. Food Chem Toxicol 98:240–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sasaki YF, Kawaguchi S, Kamaya A, Ohshita M, Kabasawa K, Iwama K, Taniguchi K, Tsuda S (2002) The comet assay with 8 mouse organs: results with 39 currently used food additives. Mutat Res 519:103–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Tedeschi P, Bonetti G, Maietti A, Brandolini V (2014) Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprint and antioxidants profile as markers for Tropea red onion (Allium cepa L.) authenticity. J Food Compos Anal 36:98–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Türkoğlu S (2007) Genotoxicity of five food preservatives tested on root tips of Allium cepa L. Mutat Res 10:4–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Villano D, Fernandez-Pachon MS, Troncoso AM, Garcia-Parrilla MC (2004) The antioxidant activity of wines determined by the ABTS+ method: influence of sample dilution and time. Talanta 64:501–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. WHO (1974) Food additive series. Wld Hlth Org. techn. Rep. Ser., No. 539; and FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, No. 53Google Scholar
  34. Yıldız M, Cigerci IH, Konuk M, Fidan AF, Terzi H (2009) Determination of genotoxic effects of copper sulphate and cobalt chloride in Allium cepa root cells by chromosome aberration and comet assays. Chemosphere 75:934CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Zengin N, Yüzbaşıoğlu D, Ünal F, Yılmaz S, Aksoy H (2011) The evaluation of the genotoxicity of two food preservatives: sodium benzoate and potassium benzoate. Food Chem Toxicol 49:763–769CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biology, Graduate School of Natural and Applied SciencesBozok UniversityYozgatTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts and ScienceBozok UniversityYozgatTurkey

Personalised recommendations