, Volume 70, Issue 2, pp 537–554 | Cite as

Cytotoxicity and apoptotic cell death induced by Vitis vinifera peel and seed extracts in A431 skin cancer cells

  • J. Grace Nirmala
  • S. Evangeline Celsia
  • Akila Swaminathan
  • R. T. Narendhirakannan
  • Suvro Chatterjee
Original Article


Vitis vinifera. L is one of the most widely consumed fruits in the world and are rich in antioxidant abundant polyphenols. The present study was carried out to assess the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of Vitis vinifera peel and seed extracts in an in vitro model using human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cell lines. Vitis vinifera peel and seed extracts were incubated with A431 cells to evaluate the antiproliferative, apoptotic effects and the morphological apoptotic changes induced by the extracts. Mitochondrial membrane potential was also measured after incubating the cells with extracts. At the inhibitory concentration (IC50), grape seed extract (111.11 µg/mL) and grape peel extract (319.14 µg/mL) were incubated for 24 h with A431 cells. Vitis vinifera peel and seed extracts were able to impart cytotoxic effects, induced apoptosis and apoptotic morphological changes in A431 cells significantly (p < 0.01) and this effect is associated with the interference with mitochondrial membrane potential. This reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential probably initiated the apoptotic cascade in the extracts treated cells. Vitis vinifera peel and seed phytochemicals can selectively target cancer cells and the phytochemicals that are occluded can serve as potential anticancer agents providing better efficacy in killing cancer cells.


Cell death Polyphenols Reactive oxygen species Vitis vinifera Apoptosis 



The authors express their gratitude to Dr. Paul Dhinakaran, Chancellor, Dr. Sundar Manoharan S, Vice chancellor, Dr. Joseph Kennedy, Registrar, Dr. Patrick Gomes, Former Director, School of Biotechnology and Health Sciences, Dr. J. Jannet Vennila, Director, School of Biotechnology and Health Sciences, Karunya University for providing the necessary facilities for carrying out the experiments. Images of figure no 1(b), 2 and control images of 4(a, b), 5 (a–e), 7(a–c), 9(a–c) and 11(a–c) were reproduced from Refs. Nirmala et al. (2016, 2017) with permission from the Royal Society of Chemistry and Elsevier publisher.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declared that they have no conflict of interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Grace Nirmala
    • 1
  • S. Evangeline Celsia
    • 1
  • Akila Swaminathan
    • 2
  • R. T. Narendhirakannan
    • 1
  • Suvro Chatterjee
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology and Health SciencesKarunya University (Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences)CoimbatoreIndia
  2. 2.AU-KBC Research Centre and Department of BiotechnologyAnna UniversityChennaiIndia

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