Spirulina platensis prevents high glucose-induced oxidative stress mitochondrial damage mediated apoptosis in cardiomyoblasts
- 154 Downloads
The current study was undertaken to study the effect of Spirulina platensis (Spirulina) extract on enhanced oxidative stress during high glucose induced cell death in H9c2 cells. H9c2 cultured under high glucose (33 mM) conditions resulted in a noteworthy increase in oxidative stress (free radical species) accompanied by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c, increase in caspase activity and pro-apoptotic protein (Bax). Spirulina extract (1 μg/mL), considerably inhibited increased ROS and RNS levels, reduction in cytochrome c release, raise in mitochondrial membrane potential, decreased the over expression of proapoptotic protein Bax and suppressed the Bax/Bcl2 ratio with induced apoptosis without affecting cell viability. Overall results suggest that Spirulina extract plays preventing role against enhanced oxidative stress during high glucose induced apoptosis in cardiomyoblasts as well as related dysfunction in H9c2 cells.
KeywordsH9c2 High glucose Oxidative stress Apoptosis Spirulina platensis
Reactive oxygen species
Reactive nitrogen species
- X + XO
Xanthine plus xanthine oxidase
- Cu–Zn SOD
NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester
We thank, Director, National Centre of Cell Sciences, NCCS Complex, S.P. Pune University, Ganeshkhind, Pune, Maharashtra, India for providing basic facilities and to Dr. Sandhya Sitasawad, Senior Scientist, National Centre of Cell Sciences, NCCS Complex, S.P. Pune University, Ganeshkhind, Pune, Maharashtra, India for her critical suggestion, support and encouragement. This research work was supported by a research grant from Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of India, New Delhi under FTYS scheme (SR/FT/LS-093/2007).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
We declare that there is no conflict of interest.
- Chen-Levy Z, Cleary ML (1990) Membrane topology of the Bcl-2 proto-oncogenic protein demonstrated in vitro. Biol Chem 265:4929–4933Google Scholar
- Chu W-L, Lim Y-W, Radhakrishnan AK, Lim P-E (2010) Protective effect of aqueous extract from Spirulina platensis against cell death induced by free radicals. BMC Complement Altern Med 10:53. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/10/53
- Kinoshita T, Yokota T, Arai K, Miyajima A (1995) Regulation of Bcl2 expression of oncogenic Ras protein in hematopoietic cells. Oncogene 10:2207–2212Google Scholar
- Li XL, Xu G, Chen T, Wong YS, Zhao HL, Fan RR, Gu XM, Tong PC, Chan JC (2009) Phycocyanin protects INS-1E pancreatic beta cells against human islet amyloid polypeptide-induced apoptosis through attenuating oxidative stress and modulating JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 41:1526–1535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yang L, Mashima T, Sato S, Mochizuki M, Sakamoto H, Yamori T, Oh-Hara T, Tsuruo T (2003) Predominant suppression of apoptosome by inhibitor of apoptosis protein in non-small cell lung cancer. H460 cells: therapeutic affects of a novel polyarginine-conjugated Smac peptide. Cancer Res 63:831–837Google Scholar
- Yin XM, Oltvai ZN, Korsmeyer SJ (1995) Heterodimerization with Bax is required for Bcl-2 to repress cell death. Curr Trop Microbiol Immunol 194:331–338Google Scholar
- Zheng J, Inoguch T, Sasaki S, Maeda Y, McCarty MF, Fujii M, Ikeda N, Kobayashi K, Sonoda N, Takayanagi R (2013) Phycocyanin and phycocyanobilin from Spirulina platensis protect against diabetic nephropathy by inhibiting oxidative stress. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 304:R110–R120CrossRefGoogle Scholar