Cytotechnology

, Volume 70, Issue 1, pp 95–101 | Cite as

Cytogenetic characterization of Amaranthus caudatus L. and Amaranthus hybridus subsp. cruentus (L.) Thell.

Original Article
  • 59 Downloads

Abstract

The present study is aimed to identify genetic variability between two species of Amaranthus viz., A. caudatus and A. hybridus subsp. cruentus, two economically important species, cultivated mainly for grain production. Karyomorphological studies in Amaranthus are scarce, probably due to higher number of small sized chromosomes. Karyomorphological studies were conducted using mitotic squash preparation of young healthy root tips. Karyological parameters and karyotypic formula were established using various software programs and tabulated the karyomorphometric and asymmetry indices viz., Disparity index, Variation coefficient, Total forma percentage, Karyotype asymmetry index, Syi index, Rec index, Interchromosomal and Intrachromosomal asymmetry index and Degree of asymmetry of karyotypes. The mitotic chromosome number observed for A. caudatus was 2n = 32 with a gametic number n = 16 and A. hybridus subsp. cruentus was 2n = 34 with a gametic number n = 17. In A. caudatus the chromosome length during somatic metaphase ranged from 0.8698 to 1.7722 μm with a total length of 39.1412 μm. In A. hybridus subsp. cruentus the length of chromosome ranged from 0.7756 to 1.9421 μm with a total length of 44.9922 μm. Various karyomorphometry and asymmetry indices analyzed revealed the extend of interspecific variation and their evolutionary status.

Keywords

Amaranthus caudatus Amaranthus hybridus subsp. cruentus Cytogenetics Karyomorphology 

Notes

Acknowledgements

First author kindly acknowledges Kerala State Council for Science, Technology and Environment for providing financial assistance through KSCSTE fellowship.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.

References

  1. Abraham Z, Prasad PN (1983) A system of chromosome classification and nomenclature. Cytologia 48:95–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anil SR, Suhara Beevy S, Siril EA (2013) Karyosystematic studies in Amorphophallus Blume ex Decne. J Root Crops 39:39–50Google Scholar
  3. Arno H (1963) Cytological studies in subfamily Carduoideae (Compositae) of Japan. IX. The karyotype analysis and phylogenetic considerations on Pertya and Ainsliaea. Bot Mag (Tokyo) 76:32–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bressani R (1989) The proteins of grain amaranths. Food Res Int 5:213–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Grant WF (1959a) Cytogenetic studies in Amaranthus: I. Cytogenetical aspects of sex determination in dioecious species. Can J Bot 37:413–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Grant WF (1959b) Cytogenetic studies in Amaranthus: II. Natural interspecific hybridation between Amaranthus dubius and A. spinosus. Can J Bot 37:1063–1070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Grant WF (1959c) Cytogenetic studies in Amaranthus: III. Chromosome numbers and phylogenetic aspects. Can J Genet Cytol 1:313–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Greilhuber J, Speta F (1976) C-banded karyotypes in the Scilla hohenackeri group, S. persica and Puschkinia (Liliaceae). Plant Syst Evol 126:149–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Guerra M (2008) Chromosome number in plant cytotaxonomy:concepts and implications. Cytogenet Genome Res 120:339–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hauptli H, Jain S (1984) Biosystematics and agronomic potential of some weedy and cultivated amaranths. Theor Appl Genet 69:155–165Google Scholar
  11. Huziwara Y (1962) The karyotype analysis in some genera of Compositae X: the chromosome of some European species of Aster. Bot Mag 75:143–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kolano B, Pando LG, Maluszynska J (2001) Molecular cytogenetic studies in Chenopodium quinoa and Amaranthus caudatus. Acta Soc Bot Pol 70:85–90Google Scholar
  13. Mohanty BD, Ghosh PD, Maity S (1991) Chromosome analysis in cultured cells of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.): structural alterations in chromosomes. Cytologia 56:191–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Pal M, Pandley RM, Khoshoo TM (1982) Evolution and improvements of cultivated Amaranths IX. Cytogenetic relationships between the two basic chromosome numbers. J Hered 73:353–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Pal M, Ohri D, Subrahmanyam GV (2000) A new basic chromosome number for Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae). Cytologia 65:13–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Sammour RH, Radwan SA, Mira M (2012) Genetic diversity in genus Amaranthus: from morphology to genomic DNA. Res Rev Biosci 6:351–360Google Scholar
  17. Sauer JD (1967) The grain amaranths and their relatives: a revised taxonomic and geographic survey. Ann Mo Bot Gard 54:102–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Srivastava R, Roy BK (2014) A new chromosome number for Amaranthus blitum. JNBR 3:111–114Google Scholar
  19. Stebbins GL (1971) Chromosomal evolution in higher plants. Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd, LondonGoogle Scholar
  20. Tucker JΒ (1986) Amaranth: the once and future crop. Bioscience 36:9–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Venora G, Blangiforti S, Castiglione MR, Pignone D, Losavio F, Cremonini R (2002) Chromatin organization and computer aided karyotyping of Triticum durum Desf. Cv. Timilia. Caryologia 55:91–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Verma BN (1980) Karyotype analysis in three species of Rhizoclonium Kütz. Cytologia 45:433–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Watanabe K, Yahara T, Denda T, Kosuge K (1999) Chromosomal evolution in the genus Brachyscome (Asteraceae, Astereae): statistcal tests regarding correlation between changes in karyotype and habit using phylogenetic information. J Plant Res 112:145–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Zarco CR (1986) New method for estimating karyotype asymmetry. Taxon 35:526–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cell and Molecular Biology Division, Department of BotanyUniversity of CalicutKeralaIndia

Personalised recommendations