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Extract of Calvatia gigantea inhibits proliferation of A549 human lung cancer cells

Abstract

In this study, in order to investigate the anticancer mechanism of Calvatia gigantea extract, edible mushroom species, which belong to Lycoperdaceae family, changes of CCND1, CCND2, CDK4, p21, Akt, Bax, Bcl-2, p53, caspase-3 and caspase-9 were evaluated in A549 lung cancer cells. Cytotoxic effect of C. gigantea extract was evaluated by using XTT (2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5 carboxanilide). The C. gigantea extract was treated in a time and dose dependent manner within the range 25 μg/ml–2 mg/ml to determine the IC50 dose. IC50 dose for C. gigantea extract was detected as 500 μg/ml for 72 h. According to expression results, while CCND1, CCND2, CDK4, Akt and Bcl-2 expression clearly decreased, Bax, p53, caspase-3 and caspase-9 expression clearly increased in the dose group cells (A549 cells treated with 500 μg/ml dose of C. gigantea extract for 72 h). However, there was no change in p21 expression. C. gigantea extract induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by decreasing the CCND1, CCND2, CDK4, Akt and Bcl-2 expression and by increasing Bax, p53, caspase-3 and caspase-9 expression in A549 cells. Mushrooms are eukaryotic organisms heavily used because of their supposedly anticancer effect. Many mushroom species have been used for medical purposes, as a result of also having many effects such as antibiotic, antiviral and anticancer effects. It is thought that the C. gigantea extract may be a significant agent for treatment of lung cancer as a single agent or in combination with other drugs.

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Correspondence to Canan Eroğlu.

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Eroğlu, C., Seçme, M., Atmaca, P. et al. Extract of Calvatia gigantea inhibits proliferation of A549 human lung cancer cells. Cytotechnology 68, 2075–2081 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10616-016-9947-4

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Keywords

  • Apoptosis
  • Calvatia gigantea
  • Cell cycle
  • Lung cancer cell line