, Volume 67, Issue 2, pp 207–213 | Cite as

Genotoxicity of drinking water disinfection by-products (bromoform and chloroform) by using both Allium anaphase-telophase and comet tests

  • Messaouda Khallef
  • Recep Liman
  • Muhsin KonukEmail author
  • İbrahim Hakkı Ciğerci
  • Djameleddine Benouareth
  • Mouna Tabet
  • Ahlem Abda
Original Research


Genotoxic effects of bromoform and chloroform, disinfection by-products of the chlorination of drinking water, were examined by using mitotic index (MI), mitotic phase, chromosome aberrations (CAs) and comet assay on root meristematic cells of Allium cepa. Different concentrations of bromoform (25, 50, 75 and 100 μg/mL) and chloroform (25, 50, 100 and 200 μg/mL) were introduced to onion tuber roots. Distilled water was used as a negative control and methyl methansulfonate (MMS-10 μg/mL) as positive control. All obtained data were subjected to statistical analyses by using SPSS 15.0 for Windows software. For comparison purposes, Duncan multiple range tests by using one-way analysis of variance were employed and p < 0.05 was accepted as significant value. Exposure of both chemicals (except 25 μg/mL applications of bromoform) significantly decreased MI. Bromoform and chloroform (except 25 μg/mL applications) increased total CAs in Allium anaphase-telophase test. A significant increase in DNA damage was also observed at all concentrations of both bromoform and chloroform examined by comet assay. The damages were higher than that of positive control especially at 75–100 μg/mL for bromoform and 100–200 μg/mL for chloroform.


Allium test Bromoform Chloroform Comet assay DNA damage Mitotic index 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Messaouda Khallef
    • 1
  • Recep Liman
    • 2
  • Muhsin Konuk
    • 3
    Email author
  • İbrahim Hakkı Ciğerci
    • 4
  • Djameleddine Benouareth
    • 5
  • Mouna Tabet
    • 5
  • Ahlem Abda
    • 5
  1. 1.Biochemistry Department, Faculty of SciencesBadji Mokhtar UniversityAnnabaAlgeria
  2. 2.Molecular Biology and Genetics Department, Faculty of Arts and SciencesUşak UniversityUşakTurkey
  3. 3.Molecular Biology and Genetics Department, Faculty of Engineering and Natural SciencesÜsküdar UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  4. 4.Biology Department, Faculty of Arts and SciencesAfyon Kocatepe UniversityAfyonkarahisarTurkey
  5. 5.Biology Department, Faculty of Natural Sciences8 Mai 1945 UniversityGuelmaAlgeria

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