Spondias pinnata, a commonly distributed tree in India, previously proven for various pharmacological properties and also reported for efficient anti-oxidant, free radical scavenging and iron chelating activity, continuing this, the present study is aimed to investigate the role of 70 % methanolic extract of S. pinnata bark (SPME) in promoting apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549) and human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7). These two malignant cell lines and a normal cell line were treated with increasing concentrations of SPME and cell viability is calculated. SPME showed significant cytotoxicity to both A549 and MCF-7 cells with an IC50 value of 147.84 ± 3.74 and 149.34 ± 13.30 μg/ml, respectively, whereas, comparatively no cytotoxicity was found in normal human lung fibroblast cell line (WI-38): IC50 932.38 ± 84.44 μg/ml. Flow cytometric analysis and confocal microscopic studies confirmed that SPME is able to induce apoptosis in both malignant cell lines. Furthermore, immunoblot result proposed the pathway of apoptosis induction by increasing Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in both cell types, which results in the activation of the caspase-cascade and ultimately leads to the cleavage of Poly adeno ribose polymerase. For the first time this study proved the anticancer potential of SPME against human lung and breast cancer by inducing apoptosis through the modulation of Bcl-2 family proteins. This might take S. pinnata in light to investigate it for further development as therapeutic anticancer source.
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The authors would like to acknowledge Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Govt. of India for providing the necessary funds to conduct the study. Acknowledgments are also due to Mr. Ranjit K. Das and Mr. Pradip K. Mallick for their technical assistance.
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Ghate, N.B., Hazra, B., Sarkar, R. et al. In vitro anticancer activity of Spondias pinnata bark on human lung and breast carcinoma. Cytotechnology 66, 209–218 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10616-013-9553-7
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