, 50:93 | Cite as

Recommended Method for Chromosome Exploitation: RMCE-based Cassette-exchange Systems in Animal Cell Biotechnology

  • André Oumard
  • Junhua Qiao
  • Thomas Jostock
  • Jiandong Li
  • Juergen BodeEmail author


The availability of site-specific recombinases has revolutionized the rational construction of cell lines with predictable properties. Early efforts were directed to providing pre-characterized genomic loci with a single recombinase target site that served as an address for the integration of vectors carrying a compatible tag. Efficient procedures of this type had to await recombinases like ΦC31, which recombine attP and attB target sites in a one-way reaction — at least in the cellular environment of the higher eukaryotic cell. Still these procedures lead to the co-introduction of prokaryotic vector sequences that are known to cause epigenetic silencing. This review illuminates the actual status of the more advanced recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) techniques that have been developed for the major members of site-specific recombinases (SR), Flp, Cre and ΦC31. In RMCE the genomic address consists of a set of heterospecific recombinase target (RT-) sites permitting the exchange of the intervening sequence for the gene of interest (GOI), as part of a similar cassette. This process locks the GOI in place and it is ‘clean’ in the sense that it does not co-introduce prokaryotic vector parts nor does it leave behind a selection marker.

Key words

Cassette exchange Flexing Floxing Flrting Froxing RMCE Site-specific recombinase Tissue engineering 



Flp-recombinase target site


homologous recombination


recombinase-mediated cassette exchange


recombinase target


site-specific recombination


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Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • André Oumard
    • 1
  • Junhua Qiao
    • 1
  • Thomas Jostock
    • 2
  • Jiandong Li
    • 2
  • Juergen Bode
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.German Research Center for Biotechnology (GBF), RDIF/Epigenetic RegulationBraunschweigGermany
  2. 2.Technical University of Braunschweig, Institute of Biochemistry and BiotechnologyBraunschweigGermany

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