Skip to main content

A Place for Every Tool and Every Tool in Its Place: Cognitive Integrative Perspective for Coherence on the New Frontier of Mind and Body Practice


There is currently a growing research and clinical knowledge base regarding the application of Eastern traditions, especially mindfulness and other forms of meditation, to direct practice. As we incorporate new tools for intervention into our toolkit, it is important to expand our theoretical framework so that we can know when to utilize these tools, how their mechanism fits with the tools we already have, and what kinds of change or outcomes we should expect from utilizing them. These new tools are powerful across many experiences of distress, but clear guidelines are necessary to maximize their benefit. Berlin’s cognitive-integrative perspective provides a framework that allows for reflective understanding and application of mind/body/spirit that is consistent with social work values and what we currently know about the underlying science of mind. Using concrete examples from direct practice, this paper will lay out the framework that is consonant with Siegel’s interpersonal neurobiology, discussed in this volume, and also firmly rooted in the person-in-environment perspective that is characteristic of social work.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1


  • Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191–215.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Beck, A. T. (2005). The current state of cognitive therapy: A 40-year retrospective. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 953–959.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Berlin, S. B. (2002). Clinical social work: A cognitive-integrative perspective. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Foa, E. B., & Chambless, D. L. (1978). Habituation of subjective anxiety during flooding in imagery. Behavior Research and Therapy, 16, 391–399.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Greenberg, L. S. (2002). Integrating and emotion-focused approach to treatment into psychotherapy integration. Journal of Psychotherapy integration, 12(2), 154–189.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hahn, T. N. (1999). The miracle of mindfulness. Boston: Beacon Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ishibashi, N. (2005). Barrier or bridge? The language of diagnosis in clinical social work. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 75(1), 65–80.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kirk, S. A., & Kutchins, H. (1992). The selling of DSM. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

    Google Scholar 

  • Linehan, M. M. (1993). Change procedures: Part I and II (chapters 10 and 11). In Cognitive behavioral treatment of borderline personality disorder (pp. 292–370). NY: Guilford.

  • National Association of Social Work (2008).

  • Perry, B. D., & Szalavitz, M. (2008). The boy who was raised as a dog and other stories from a psychiatrists notebook: What traumatized children can teach us about loss, love, and healing. New York: Basic Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Resick, P. A., Monson, C. M., & Rizvi, S. L. (2008). Posttraumatic stress disorder. In D. H. Barlow (Ed.), Clinical handbook of psychological disorders: A step-by-step treatment manual (4th ed., pp. 65–122). New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Richmond, M. E. (1906). The retail method in reform. International Journal in Ethics, 16(2), 171–179.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schwartz, J. M., & Beyette, B. (1996). Brain lock: Free yourself from obsessive–compulsive behavior. New York: ReganBooks.

    Google Scholar 

  • Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M. G., & Teasdale, J. D. (2002). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression. New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Siegel, D. J., & Hartzell, M. (2003). How we keep it together and how we fall apart: The high road and the low road. In Parenting from the inside out: How a deeper self-understanding can help you raise children who thrive (pp. 154–184). New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Penguin.

  • Teasdale, J. D. (1988). Cognitive vulnerability to persistent depression. Cognition and Emotion, 2, 247–274.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Teasdale, J. D., & Barnard, P. J. (1993). Affect, cognition, and change: Re-modeling depressive thought. Hove, East Sussex, UK: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Noriko Ishibashi Martinez.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Martinez, N.I. A Place for Every Tool and Every Tool in Its Place: Cognitive Integrative Perspective for Coherence on the New Frontier of Mind and Body Practice. Clin Soc Work J 42, 302–311 (2014).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Cognitive-integrative perspective
  • Interacting cognitive subsystems
  • Mindfulness
  • Meditation