## Abstract

Extensive exploration of simulation models comes at a high computational cost, all the more when the model involves a lot of parameters. Economists usually rely on random explorations, such as Monte Carlo simulations, and basic econometric modeling to approximate the properties of computational models. This paper aims to provide guidelines for the use of a much more efficient method that combines a parsimonious sampling of the parameter space using a specific *design of experiments (DoE)*, with a well-suited metamodeling method first developed in geostatistics: *kriging*. We illustrate these guidelines by following them in the analysis of two simple and well known economic models: Nelson and Winter’s industrial dynamics model, and Cournot oligopoly with learning firms. In each case, we show that our DoE experiments can catch the main effects of the parameters on the models’ dynamics with a much lower number of simulations than the Monte-Carlo sampling (e.g. 85 simulations instead of 2,000 in the first case). In the analysis of the second model, we also introduce supplementary numerical tools that may be combined with this method, for characterizing configurations complying with a specific criterion (social optimal, replication of stylized facts, etc.). Our appendix gives an example of the R-project code that can be used to apply this method on other models, in order to encourage other researchers to quickly test this approach on their models.

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## Notes

- 1.
- 2.
More precisely, consider that the null hypothesis is rejected if the observed values of the variable under interest are higher than a given value, at a frequency higher than a given confidence threshold \(\alpha \le 1\). Running simulations until one obtains \(n \cdot \alpha \le n\) observations leading to the rejection of the null hypothesis is shown to have the same power as running \(n\) simulations, and assessing only afterwards whether the null hypothesis has to be rejected or not. The number of simulations can hence be reduced by a factor up to \(\frac{1}{\alpha }\). A small amount of power can further be traded with a larger decrease in the number of simulations, and Silva et al. (2009) provide related estimations of the power loss.

- 3.
Kriging models have been named after Danie G. Krige, a South African mining engineer who developed those models to improve ore evaluation techniques at the Witwatersrand reef complex in South Africa, pioneering the field of geostatistics, see Krige (1951). As for the statistical theory of DoE, it was developed in agriculture in the 1920’s, for real, non-simulated experiments, see Fisher (1935).

- 4.
- 5.
The estimation of the meta-model is actually done through feasible GLS as the covariance matrix \(C\) is unknown and its parameters have to be estimated, see below.

- 6.
There are two possible triplets of rows (bac, cba, acb) and (abc, cab, bca), each can be permuted in \(3!=6\) different ways, so that one obtains \(2 \times 6=12\) possible configurations.

- 7.
In that case, the meta-model refers to

*ordinary kriging*, and of simple kriging if the mean is known, contrary to*universal kriging*in the more general case, which is exposed above. - 8.
Recall that kriging is an exact interpolator, so that the \(R^{2}\) coefficient cannot be computed.

- 9.
In practice, either the factors have a finite set of values, and the ANOVA is performed using the common formula of the multi-variate analysis of variance with discrete factors, see, for instance, Frey and Patil (2002); or the factors are defined over a continuous domain, and the experimental domain has to be discretized in order to apply these formula. In that case, predictions of the response through the meta-model are evaluated over a \(k\)-dimensional grid [see (Welch et al. 1992; Saltelli et al. 1999)].

- 10.
- 11.
See also Nelson and Winter (1978) for an extensive presentation and discussion of the model. In this paper, we only use this model as a simple example, in order to apply the method previously developed. We adopt values used in the original model for the parameters that we do not include in our experiments.

- 12.
We also consider a \(10,000\) simulations Monte Carlo sample for robustness checks.

- 13.
R Development Core Team (2013) software can also be used but the package effects, which computes ANOVA marginal effects, is not directly connected to the DiceKriging package, which performs kriging estimation and the modeler has to use the package sensitivity, which delivers less detailed results [

*see*(Roustant et al. 2010)]. - 14.
These figures are built using the principles given in Sub-subsection 2.3.5.

- 15.
We consider that we catch these effects in a robust way if they appear as significant in each of the \(100\) regressions obtained from \(100\) random sets of \(2,000\) simulations.

- 16.
The complete code used in this section is provided in Appendix 4.

- 17.
- 18.
Higher order polynomials would involve too many parameters to be estimated, considering only 33 observations.

- 19.
It should be noted that applying sensitivity analysis to the other forms of kriging identifies the same determinants, which indicates that the overall picture of the meta-model is not sensitive to the specification.

- 20.
See also Salle et al. (2012) for an application of this function to the minimization of a Central Bank’s loss function in a macroeconomic agent-based model.

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## Acknowledgments

We are grateful to two anonymous referees for their comments and suggestions, and to the participants of the Lipari summer school on “Data mining and modelling of complex techno-socio-economic systems” (July 2012, Italy) for useful comments and discussions. We are responsible for all remaining errors.

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Salle, I., Yıldızoğlu, M. Efficient Sampling and Meta-Modeling for Computational Economic Models.
*Comput Econ* **44, **507–536 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10614-013-9406-7

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### Keywords

- Computational economics
- Exploration of agent-based models
- Design of experiments
- Meta-modeling