Skip to main content

Total Extraction: Exploitative Behaviors of the Carceral Apparatus Towards Carceral Officers in Central Appalachia

Abstract

The era of mass incarceration has had a profound impact on rural areas, such as the Central Appalachian region in the United States. Since 1989, twenty-nine new prisons have been built in the region (Perdue and Sanchagrin 2016). The justifications put forth for prison-building have focused predominantly on economic development and job creation, as deindustrialization continues to affect residents. Research has found that prison-building as a means for economic development in rural areas is a myth, however—one that obscures the real reason for carceral expansion. This article explores the nature of prison-building and the resulting exploitation of individuals working in these carceral institutions in Central Appalachia. We argue that prison-building is a mechanism of economic and social control within the region, and we focus our analysis on the poor working conditions, impoverished pay, and the general toxicity of the land on which these prisons are situated. Our article is not, however, a call for improved working conditions in the prisons. Instead, we weave together literature on the exploitation of carceral officers, the community, and the incarcerated to explore avenues of abolitionist solidarity between all people harmed by the carceral state.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Notes

  1. 1.

    The Central Appalachian region of the US consists of multiple counties in southern West Virginia, eastern Kentucky, western Virginia, and eastern Tennessee (Appalachian Regional Commission 2009).

  2. 2.

    The “Southern Strategy” was an electoral strategy of the Republican Party which, in the wake of the civil rights movement, attempted to court Southern white voters by capitalizing on their racial fears (Maxwell 2019; Maxwell and Shields 2019).

  3. 3.

    Central Appalachian people already face some of the highest rates of health-related issues in the US. They have higher rates of diabetes, heart disease, and stroke (Kitzman et al. 2019). Even higher rates of disease appear in the most distressed counties or areas most likely to be the target of carceral facilities (Barker et al. 2010). Heart disease death rates for the region are more than double the national average in the most impoverished areas of Central Appalachia (Brown and O’Connor 2010). Stroke-related death rates are significantly higher in Central Appalachia in comparison with the rest of the country, which has led some to refer to the region as the “stroke belt” (Halverson et al. 2004; Kitzman et al. 2019).

  4. 4.

    According to Ryerson and Schept (2018), the 2018 Consolidated Appropriations Act increased the funding for the USP Letcher project from US$444 million to US$510 million.

References

  1. Adams, R. (2016). Group opposing prison holds protest at SOAR Innovation Summit. WYMT, June 6. http://www.wymt.comcontent/news/Letcher-Governance-Project-holds-silent-protest-at-SOAR-Summit-in-381971531.html.

  2. Alexander, M. (2012). The new Jim Crow: Mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness. New York: The New Press.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Aloi, M. J. (2018). Coal feeds my family: Subsistence, energy, and industry in Central Appalachia. Relations Beyond Anthropocentrism, 6(2), 269–286.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Anglin, M. K. (2010). Moving forward: Gender and globalization in/of Appalachian studies. Appalachian Journal, 37(3/4), 286–300.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Anglin, M. (2016). Toward a new politics of outrage and transformation: Placing Appalachia within the global political economy. Journal of Appalachian Studies, 22(1), 51–56.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Appalachian Regional Commission. (2009). Subregions in Appalachia. Appalachian Regional Commission. https://www.arc.gov/research/MapsofAppalachia.asp?MAP_ID=31.

  7. Baptiste, N. (2017). Report: America’s prisons are so polluted they are endangering inmates. Mother Jones. June 8. https://www.motherjones.com/environment/2017/06/report-americas-prisons-are-so-polluted-they-are-endangering-inmates/.

  8. Barker, L., Crespo, R., Shrewsberry, M., Gerzoff, R. B., Cornelius-Averhart, D., & Denham, S. (2010). rResidence in a distressed county in Appalachia as a risk factor for diabetes, behavioral risk factor surveillance system, 2006–2007. Preventing Chronic Disease, 7(5), 1–9.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Bell, S. E. (2016). Fighting king coal: The challenges to micromobilization in central Appalachia. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Berkowitz, B., & Meko, T. (2017). Appalachia comes up small in era of giant coal mines. The Washington Post. May 5. https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/national/coal-jobs-in-appalachia/?utm_term=.e9f7743260c3.

  11. Bernd, C., Farren-Loftus, Z., & Mitra, M. N. (2017). America’s toxic prisons: The environmental injustices of mass incarceration. Truthout, June 1. https://truthout.org/articles/america-s-toxic-prisons-the-environmental-injustices-of-mass-incarceration/.

  12. Besser, T. L., & Hanson, M. M. (2016). Development of last resort: The impact of new state prisons on small town economies in the United States. In Rhonda G. Phillips & Terry L. Besser (Eds.), Community economic development (pp. 1–16). New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Billings, D. B., & Blee, K. M. (2000). The road to poverty: The making of wealth and hardship in Appalachia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Billings, D. B., Norman, G., & Ledford, K. (2000). Backtalk from Appalachia: Confronting stereotypes. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Bobo, L., Kluegel, J. R., & Smith, R. A. (1997). Laissez-faire racism: The crystallization of a kinder, gentler, antiblack ideology. In Steven A. Tuch & Jack K. Martin (Eds.), Racial attitudes in the 1990s: Continuity and change (pp. 15–44). Westport, CT: Praeger.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Bonilla-Silva, E. (2017). Racism without racists: Color-blind racism and the persistence of racial inequality in America. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Brisbin, R. A. (2002). A strike like no other strike: Law and resistance during the Pittston Coal strike of 1989–1990. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Brisman, A., McClanahan, B., & South, N. (2014). Toward a green-cultural criminology of “the rural”. Critical Criminology: An International Journal, 22(4), 479–494.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Brower, J. (2013). Correctional officer wellness and safety literature review. U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Diagnostic Center. Washington, DC. https://s3.amazonaws.com/static.nicic.gov/Public/244831.pdf.

  20. Brown, J. R., & O’Connor, G. T. (2010). Coronary heart disease and prevention in the United States. The New England Journal of Medicine, 362(23), 2150–2153.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Cheek, F., & Howard, R. (1984). Stress management for correctional officers and their families. College Park, MD: American Correctional Association.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Clay, R. A. (2014). Reducing rural suicide. Monitor on Psychology, 45(4), 36–39.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Commonwealth of Kentucky. (n.d.) Commonwealth of Kentucky: Job class specification. https://personnel.ky.gov/Pages/JobSpecs.aspx.

  24. Cullen, F. T., Jonson, C. L., & Nagin, D. S. (2011). Prisons do not reduce recidivism: The high cost of ignoring science. The Prison Journal, 91(3), 48S–65S.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Dennis, B., & Eilperin, J. (2017). Trump signs order at the EPA to dismantle environmental protections. The Washington Post, March 28. https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/trump-signs-order-at-the-epa-to-dismantle-environmental-protections/2017/03/28/3ec30240-13e2-11e7-ada0-1489b735b3a3_story.html.

  26. Drake, R. (2001). A history of Appalachia. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Eller, R. (2008). Uneven ground: Appalachia since 1945. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Equal Justice Initiative. (2017). Investigation reveals environmental dangers in America’s toxic prisons. https://eji.org/news/investigation-reveals-environmental-dangers-in-toxic-prisons/.

  29. Fabricant, N., & Fabricant, M. (2019). Cognitive fracture: How disposable bodies and toxic status quo led to the rise of trump in Appalachia. Journal of Labor and Society, 22(1), 187–195.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Fink, G. M. (1999). The Tennessee convict war. Reviews in American History, 27(4), 587–594.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Fisher, S. L. (2009). Fighting back in Appalachia: Traditions of resistance and change. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Fisher, S. L., & Smith, B. E. (Eds.). (2012). Transforming places: Lessons from Appalachia. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Fraley, J. M. (2007). Appalachian stereotypes and mountaintop removal. Peace Review, 19(3), 365–370.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Garland, D. (2001). The culture of control. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Gallup and Healthways. (2014). State of American well-being: 2013 State, community, and congressional district analysis. Gallup Inc. Washington, D.C. https://cdn2.hubspot.net/hub/162029/file-610480715-pdf/WBI2013/Gallup-Healthways_State_of_American_Well-Being_Full_Report_2013.pdf.

  36. Genter, S., Hooks, G., & Mosher, C. (2013). Prisons, jobs and privatization: The impact of prisons on employment growth in rural US counties, 1997–2004. Social Science Research, 42(3), 596–610.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Gilmore, R. W. (2007). Golden gulag: Prisons, surplus, crisis, and opposition in globalizing California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Giroux, G. (2017). Rich, poor, young, old: Congressional districts at a glance. Bloomberg Government, September 15. https://about.bgov.com/news/rich-poor-young-old-congressional-districts-glance/.

  39. Hager, E. (2017). A timely prison project? Or a G.O.P. congressman’s boondoggle?. The Marshall Project, November 7. https://www.themarshallproject.org/2017/11/07/a-timely-prison-project-or-a-g-o-p-congressman-s-boondoggle.

  40. Hale, E. L., Malone, H. J., & McCann, S. (2017). Opening doors, changing futures: The Appalachian higher education network, 2011–2016. Washington, D. C.: Institute for Educational Leadership and Appalachian Higher Education Network.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Halverson, J. A., Ma, L., & Harner, E. J. (2004). An analysis of disparities in health status and access to health care in the Appalachian region. Washington, DC: Appalachian Regional Commission.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Hendryx, M., & Ahern, M. M. (2009). Mortality in Appalachian coal mining regions: The value of statistical life lost. Public Health Reports, 124(4), 541–550.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Holzman, D. C. (2011). Mountaintop removal mining: Digging into community health concerns. Environmental Health Perspective, 119(11), A476–A483.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Hooks, G., Mosher, C., Genter, S., Rotolo, T., & Lobao, L. (2010). Revisiting the impact of prison building on job growth: Education, incarceration, and county-level employment, 1976–2004. Social Science Quarterly, 91(1), 228–244.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Hooks, G., Mosher, C., Rotolo, T., & Lobao, L. (2004). The prison industry: Carceral expansion and employment in US counties, 1969–1994. Social Science Quarterly, 85(1), 37–57.

    Google Scholar 

  46. Huling, T. (2002). Building a prison economy in rural America. In M. Mauer & M. Chesney-Lind (Eds.), Invisible punishment: The collateral consequences of mass imprisonment (pp. 197–213). New York: New York University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  47. Isenberg, N. (2017). White trash: The 400-year untold history of class in America. London: Penguin Books.

    Google Scholar 

  48. Kang-Brown, J., Schattner-Elmaleh, E., & Hinds, O. (2019). People in prison in 2018. Brooklyn, NY: Vera Institute.

    Google Scholar 

  49. Keinan, G., & Malach-Pines, A. (2007). Stress and burnout among prison personnel: Sources, outcomes, and intervention strategies. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 34(3), 380–398.

    Google Scholar 

  50. Kelly-Reif, K., & Wing, S. (2016). Urban-rural exploitation: An underappreciated dimension of environmental injustice. Journal of Rural Studies, 47(Part A), 350–358.

    Google Scholar 

  51. Kinder, D. R., & Sanders, L. M. (1996). Divided by color: Racial politics and democratic ideals. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  52. Kline, M. (2017). Written in blood: Courage and corruption in the Appalachian war of extraction. Oakland, CA: PM Press.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Konda, S., Reichard, A. A., & Tiesman, H. M. (2012). Occupational injuries among US correctional officers, 1999–2008. Journal of Safety Research, 43(3), 181–186.

    Google Scholar 

  54. Kulcsar, L. J., Selfa, T., & Bain, C. M. (2016). Privileged access and rural vulnerabilities: Examining social and environmental exploitation in bioenergy development in the American midwest. Journal of Rural Studies, 47(Part A), 291–299.

    Google Scholar 

  55. Lambert, E. G., Hogan, N. L., & Allen, R. I. (2006). Correlates of correctional officer job stress: The impact of organizational structure. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 30(2), 227–246.

    Google Scholar 

  56. Lambert, E. G., Hogan, N. L., & Tucker, K. A. (2009). Problems at work: Exploring the correlates of role stress among correctional staff. The Prison Journal, 89(4), 460–481.

    Google Scholar 

  57. Lewin, P. G. (2019). Coal is not just a job, it’s a way of life”: The cultural politics of coal production in Central Appalachia. Social Problems, 66(1), 51–68.

    Google Scholar 

  58. Lichter, D., & Cimbulak, L. (2010). Family change and poverty in Appalachia. Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky Center for Poverty Research Discussion Paper Series. https://uknowledge.uky.edu/ukcpr_papers/54/.

  59. Lichter, D. T., & Ziliak, J. P. (2017). The rural-urban interface: New patterns of spatial interdependence and inequality in America. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 672(1), 6–25.

    Google Scholar 

  60. Linnemann, T., & Wall, T. (2013). ‘This is your face on meth’: The punitive spectacle of ‘white trash’ in the rural war on drugs. Theoretical Criminology, 17(3), 315–334.

    Google Scholar 

  61. Lustbader, S., & Gullapalli, (2019). Fighting against a new prison—and winning—in Letcher County, Kentucky. The Appeal, July 1. https://theappeal.org/fighting-against-a-new-prison-and-winning-in-letcher-county-kentucky/.

  62. Lynch, K. R., Logan, T., & Jackson, D. B. (2018). “People will bury their guns before they surrender them”: Implementing domestic violence gun control in rural Appalachian versus urban communities. Rural Sociology, 83(2), 315–346.

    Google Scholar 

  63. Lynch, M. J., & Stretesky, P. B. (2012). Native Americans and social and environmental justice: Implications for criminology. Social Justice, 38(3), 104–124.

    Google Scholar 

  64. Martin, J. L., Lichtenstein, B., Jenkot, R. B., & Forde, D. R. (2012). “They can take us over any time they want”: Correctional officers’ responses to prison crowding. The Prison Journal, 92(1), 88–105.

    Google Scholar 

  65. Marx, K. (2000). Karl Marx: Selected writings. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  66. Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W. B., & Leiter, M. P. (2001). Job burnout. Annual Review of Psychology, 52(1), 397–422.

    Google Scholar 

  67. Maxwell, A. (2019). What we get wrong about the southern strategy. The Washington Post, July 26. https://www.washingtonpost.com/outlook/2019/07/26/what-we-get-wrong-about-southern-strategy/.

  68. Maxwell, A., & Shields, T. (2019). The long southern strategy: How chasing white voters in the south. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  69. McDaniel, D. S., Grote, B., Fiorillo, B., Cohen, D., & Cozzens, Q. A. (2014). No escape: Exposure to toxic coal waste at state Correctional Institution Fayette.”. Pittsburgh, PA: Abolitionist Law Center and Human Rights Coalition.

    Google Scholar 

  70. Meagher, T., & Thompson, C. (2016). So you think a new prison will save your town? The Marshall Project, June 14. https://www.themarshallproject.org/2016/06/14/so-you-think-a-new-prison-will-save-your-town.

  71. Morgan, W. J. (2009). Correctional officer stress: A review of the literature 1977–2007. American Jails, 23(2), 33–43.

    Google Scholar 

  72. Morris, J. C. (2007). Government and market pathologies of privatization: The case of prison privatization. Politics & Policy, 35(2), 318–341.

    Google Scholar 

  73. Morse, T., Dussetschleger, J., Warren, N., & Cherniack, M. (2011). Talking about health: Correction employees’ assessments of obstacles to healthy living. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 53(9), 1037–1045.

    Google Scholar 

  74. Newitz, A., & Wray, M. (2013). White trash: Race and class in America. New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  75. Page, J. (2011). The toughest beat: Politics, punishment, and the prison officersunion in California. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  76. Pager, D. (2008). Marked: Race, crime, and finding work in an era of mass incarceration. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  77. Palmer, M. A., Bernhardt, E. S., Schlesinger, W. H., Eshleman, K. N., Foufoula-Georgiou, E., Hendryx, M. S., et al. (2010). Mountaintop mining consequences. Science, 327(5962), 148–149.

    Google Scholar 

  78. PBS. (2017). The prison economy: How do prisons affect the places we live? The Independent Lens, May 5. http://www.pbs.org/independentlens/blog/prison-economy-how-do-prisons-affect-the-places-we-live/.

  79. Perdue, R. T., & Sanchagrin, K. (2016). Imprisoning Appalachia: The socio-economic impacts of prison development. Journal of Appalachian Studies, 22(2), 210–223.

    Google Scholar 

  80. Plumer, B. (2013). Here’s why Central Appalachia’s coal industry is dying. The Washington Post, November 4. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2013/11/04/heres-why-central-appalachias-coal-industry-is-dying/.

  81. Pollard, K., Jacobsen, L. A., & Population Reference Bureau. (2019). The Appalachian region: A data overview from the 2013–2017 American Community Survey. Washington, D.C.: The Appalachian Regional Commission.

    Google Scholar 

  82. Rennison, C. M., DeKeseredy, W. S., & Dragiewicz, M. (2013). Intimate relationship status variations in violence against women: Urban, suburban, and rural differences. Violence Against Women, 19(11), 1312–1330.

    Google Scholar 

  83. Robinson, C. (2015). An exploration of poverty in Central Appalachia: Questions of culture, industry, and technology. KOME: An International Journal of Pure Communication Inquiry, 3(2), 75–89.

    Google Scholar 

  84. Roediger, D. R. (2005). Working toward whiteness: How America’s immigrants became white—The strange journey from Ellis Island to the suburbs. New York, NY: Basic Books.

    Google Scholar 

  85. Roller, E., & National Journal. (2014). This congressional district ranks dead last for well-being. The Atlantic, March 25. https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2014/03/this-congressional-district-ranks-dead-last-for-well-being/455913/.

  86. Romm, J. (2017). As evidence mounts that coal jobs aren’t coming back, Trump’s false promises become more cruel. Washington, D.C.: Think Progress.

    Google Scholar 

  87. Russell, K. D. (2016). Cruel and unusual construction: The Eight Amendment as a limit on building prisons on toxic waste sites. University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 165(3), 740–783.

    Google Scholar 

  88. Ryerson, S., & Schept, J. (2018). Building prisons in Appalachia: The region deserves better. Boston review: A political and literary forum, April 28. http://bostonreview.net/law-justice/sylvia-ryerson-judah-schept-building-prisons-appalachia.

  89. Schept, J. (2014). (Un) seeing like a prison: Counter-visual ethnography of the carceral state. Theoretical Criminology, 18(2), 198–223.

    Google Scholar 

  90. Sears, D. O., Sidanius, J., & Bobo, L. (2000). Racialized politics: The debate about racism in America. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  91. Seigel, M. (2018). Violence work: State power and the limits of police. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  92. Shapiro, K. A. (2017). A new south rebellion: The battle against convict labor in the Tennessee coalfields, 1871–1896. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.

    Google Scholar 

  93. Shriver, T. E., & Bodenhamer, A. (2018). The enduring legacy of black lung: Environmental health and contested illness in Appalachia. Sociology of Health & Illness, 40(8), 1361–1375.

    Google Scholar 

  94. Singh, G. K., Kogan, M. D., & Slifkin, R. T. (2017). Widening disparities in infant mortality and life expectancy between Appalachia and the rest of the United States, 1990–2013. Health Affairs, 36(8), 1423–1432.

    Google Scholar 

  95. Smith, N. (2010). Uneven development: Nature, capital, and the production of space. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press.

    Google Scholar 

  96. Smith, G. A. (2011). Selective hegemony and beyond-populations with “no productive function”: A framework for enquiry. Identities, 18(1), 2–38.

    Google Scholar 

  97. Smith, J. (2020). Racial threat and crime control: Integrating theory on race and extending its application. Critical Criminology: An International Journal. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10612-019-09485-1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  98. Spinaris, C. G., Denhof, M. D., & Kellaway, J. A. (2012). Posttraumatic stress disorder in United States corrections professionals: Prevalence and impact on health and functioning. Florence, CO: Desert Waters Correctional Outreach.

    Google Scholar 

  99. Spitzer, S. (1975). Toward a Marxian theory of deviance. Social Problems, 22(5), 638–651.

    Google Scholar 

  100. Standing, G. (2016). The precariat: The new dangerous class. London: Bloomsbury Academic.

    Google Scholar 

  101. Stump, J. L. (2018). What is the use of the colonial model (or, better yet, the concept of coloniality) for studying Appalachia? Journal of Appalachian Studies, 24(2), 151–167.

    Google Scholar 

  102. Summerlin, Z., Oehme, K., Stern, N., & Valentine, C. (2010). Disparate levels of stress in police and correctional officers: Preliminary evidence from a pilot study on domestic violence. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 20(6), 762–777.

    Google Scholar 

  103. Swenson, D. X., Waseleski, D., & Hartl, R. (2008). Shift work and correctional officers: Effects and strategies for adjustment. Journal of Correctional Health Care, 14(4), 299–310.

    Google Scholar 

  104. Tabuchi, H. (2017). Coal jobs prove lucrative, but not for those in the mines. The New York Times, May 2. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/02/climate/coal-jobs-prove-lucrative-but-not-for-those-in-the-mines.html.

  105. Tennessee Department of Human Resources. (n.d.) Classification specifications. https://agency.governmentjobs.com/tennessee/default.cfm?SearchLetter=O&action=agencyspecs.

  106. The Pew Center on the States. (2011). 2011 Kentucky reforms cut recidivism, costs.” https://www.pewtrusts.org/~/media/legacy/uploadedfiles/pcs_assets/2011/2011kentuckyreformscutrecidivismpdf.pdf.

  107. Tiesman, H. M., Hendricks, S. A., Bell, J. L., & Amandus, H. A. (2010). Eleven years of occupational mortality in law enforcement: The census of fatal occupational injuries, 1992–2002. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 53(9), 940–949.

    Google Scholar 

  108. Triplett, R., Mullings, J. L., & Scarborough, K. E. (1996). Work-related stress and coping among correctional officers: Implications from organizational literature. Journal of Criminal Justice, 24(4), 291–308.

    Google Scholar 

  109. Tuhus, M. (2019). Broad coalition defeats plan to build federal prison on toxic former mountaintop removal coal site. Between the Lines, July 10. https://btlonline.org/broad-coalition-defeats-plan-to-build-federal-prison-on-toxic-former-mountaintop-removal-coal-site/.

  110. United States Department of Health and Human Services. (2018). Annual update of the HHS poverty guidelines. Federal Register, 84(22), 1167–1168.

    Google Scholar 

  111. United States Department of Justice. (2015). Final environmental impact statement for proposed United States penitentiary and federal prison camp: Letcher County, Kentucky. https://www.prisonlegalnews.org/media/publications/FEIS_For_Proposed_US_Penitentiary_and_Federal_Prison_Camp_July_2015.pdf.

  112. Valentine, C., Oehme, K., & Martin, A. (2012). Correctional officers and domestic violence: Experiences and attitudes. Journal of Family Violence, 27(6), 531–545.

    Google Scholar 

  113. Virginia Department of Human Resource Management. (2017). Salary structure. https://www.dhrm.virginia.gov/jobs-and-careers/jobs-and-salary-structure.

  114. Walls, D. S. (1978). Internal colony or internal periphery? A critique of current models and an alternative formulation. In H. M. Lewis, L. Johnson, & D. Askins (Eds.), Colonialism in modern America: The appalachian case (pp. 319–350). Boone, NC: Appalachian State University.

    Google Scholar 

  115. Wang, J. (2018). Carceral capitalism. South Pasadena, CA: Semiotext(e).

    Google Scholar 

  116. Websdale, N. (1998). Rural women battering and the justice system: An ethnography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  117. Websdale, N., & Johnson, B. (1998). An ethno-statistical comparison of the forms and levels of woman battering in urban and rural areas of Kentucky. Criminal Justice Review, 23(2), 161–196.

    Google Scholar 

  118. Webster, C. (2008). Marginalized white ethnicity, race and crime. Theoretical Criminology, 12(3), 293–312.

    Google Scholar 

  119. West Virginia Division of Personnel. (n.d.). Schedule of salary grades 2–26. https://personnel.wv.gov/SiteCollectionDocuments/Miscellaneous%20Documents/Salary%20Grades.pdf.

  120. Winerip, M., Schwirtz, M., & Robbins, T. (2016). The state that is taking on the prison guards union. The Marshall Project, April 11. https://www.themarshallproject.org/2016/04/11/the-state-that-is-taking-on-the-prison-guards-union.

  121. Wray, M. (2006). Not quite white: White trash and the boundaries of whiteness. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  122. Yanarella, E. J., & Blankenship, S. (2006). Big house on the rural landscape: Prison recruitment as a policy tool of local economic development. Journal of Appalachian Studies, 13(2), 110–139.

    Google Scholar 

  123. Young, S. T. (2017). Wild, wonderful, white criminality: Images of “white trash” Appalachia. Critical Criminology: An International Journal, 25(1), 103–117.

    Google Scholar 

  124. Zinn, H. (2013). A people’s history of the United States: 1492-Present (3rd ed.). New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  125. Zullig, K. J., & Hendryx, M. (2011). Health-related quality of life among central Appalachian residents in mountaintop mining counties. American Journal of Public Health, 101(5), 848–853.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Brian Pitman.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Young, S.T., Pitman, B. Total Extraction: Exploitative Behaviors of the Carceral Apparatus Towards Carceral Officers in Central Appalachia. Crit Crim 28, 577–593 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10612-020-09500-w

Download citation