Moving Full-Speed Ahead in the Wrong Direction? A Critical Examination of US Sex-Offender Policy from a Positive Sexuality Model

Abstract

Despite an extensive research literature on sexual offending, much of current sexual offender policy within the United States runs counter to such literature, and instead, is based on common, pervasive myths about sexual offenders. Not surprisingly, recent studies on sex offender policy effectiveness suggest that current approaches are both costly and largely ineffective. In this paper, we suggest that a longstanding socio-cultural climate of sex-negativity fuels common fears and misconceptions about sexual offending and about policy related to treatment and supervision. We present a positive sexuality model and consider how the effectiveness of dealing with sexual offending issues could be improved through using a positive sexuality approach to guide policy.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Adam, B. D. (2003). The defense of marriage act and American exceptionalism: The “gay marriage” panic in the United States. Journal of the History of Sexuality, 12, 259–276.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Advocates for Youth. (2007). The truth about abstinence-only programs. Washington, DC: Author.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Ajzen, I. (2002). Perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, locus of control, and the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32, 665–683.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Alexander, M. A. (1999). Sexual offender treatment efficacy revisited. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Prevention and Treatment, 11, 101–117.

    Google Scholar 

  5. American Correctional Association. (1994). ACA code of ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author.

    Google Scholar 

  6. American Counseling Association. (2005). ACA code of ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author.

    Google Scholar 

  7. American Medical Association. (1996). AMA code of medical ethics. Chicago, IL: Author.

    Google Scholar 

  8. American Psychological Association. (2010). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. Washington, DC: Author.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Anglides, S. (2009). Inter/subjectivity, power and teacher-student sex crime. Intersubjectivity, 26, 87–108.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Attwood, F. (2006). Sexed up: Theorizing the sexualization of culture. Sexualities, 9(1), 77–94.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Bancroft, J. (2002). The medicalization of female sexual dysfunction: The need for caution. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 31, 451–455.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Bandura, A. (1991). Social cognitive theory of self-regulation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 248–287.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Beckmann, A. (2009). The social construction of sexuality and perversion: Deconstructing sadomasochism. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Beech, A. R., & Hamilton-Giachritsis, C. E. (2005). Relationship between therapeutic climate and treatment outcome in group-based sexual offender treatment programs. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 17, 127–140.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Bell, L. C. (2014). A California law about reporting child porn puts psychotherapists in a bind. The Washington Post.

  16. Blagden, N., Winder, B., & Hames, C. (2014). “They treat us like human beings”—Experiencing a therapeutic sex offender prison: Impact on prisoners and staff and implications for treatment. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology. doi:10.1177/0306624X14553227.

  17. Brannon, Y. N., Levenson, J. S., Fortney, T., & Baker, J. N. (2007). Attitudes about community notification: A comparison of sexual offenders and the non-offending public. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 19, 369–379.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Bullough, V. L. (1976). Sexual variance in society and history. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Burchfield, K. B. (2012). Assessing community residents’ perceptions of local registered sex offenders: Results from a pilot survey. Deviant Behavior, 33, 241–259.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Cacchioni, T., & Tiefer, L. (Eds.). (2012). Journal of Sex Research, 49(4). Special issue on the medicalization of sex.

  21. Carroll, J. S., Padilla-Walker, L. M., Nelson, L. J., Olson, C. D., Barry, C. M., & Madsen, S. D. (2008). Generation XXX pornography acceptance and use among emerging adults. Journal of Adolescent Research, 23, 6–30.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Center for Sex Offender Management. (2001). Recidivism of sex offenders. Silver Spring, MD: Author.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Center for Sex Offender Management. (no date). Assessment. Silver Spring, MD: Author. Retrieved January 20, 2015, from http://www.csom.org/pubs/cap/2/2_0.htm

  24. Chesney-Lind, M., & Morash, M. (2013). Transformative feminist criminology: A critical re-thinking of a discipline. Critical Criminology, 21, 287–304.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Cochran, J. K., & Beeghley, L. (1991). The influence of religion on attitudes toward nonmarital sexuality: A preliminary assessment of reference group theory. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 30(1), 45–62.

  26. Cohen, M., & Jeglic, E. L. (2007). Sex offender legislation in the United States: What do we know? International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 51, 369–383.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Conrad, B. K. (2006). Neo-institutionalism, social movements, and the cultural reproduction of a mentalité: Promise Keepers reconstruct the Madonna/whore complex. The Sociological Quarterly, 47(2), 305–331.

    Google Scholar 

  28. De Block, A., & Adriaens, P. R. (2013). Pathologizing sexual deviance: A history. Journal of Sex Research, 50, 276–298.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Deckman, M., & McTague, J. (2014). Did the “War on Women” work? Women, men, and the birth control mandate in the 2012 Presidential election. American Politics Research, 43(1), 3–26.

  30. DeKeseredy, W. S., & Olsson, P. (2010). Adult pornography, male peer support, and violence against women: The contribution of the “dark side” of the Internet. In M. V. Martin, M. A. Garcia-Ruiz, & A. Edwards (Eds.), Technology for facilitating humanity and combating social deviations: Interdisciplinary perspectives (pp. 34–50). Hershey, PA: Information Science Research.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Diamond, L. M. (2009). Sexual fluidity: Understanding women’s love and desire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Döring, N. M. (2009). The Internet’s impact on sexuality: A critical review of 15 years of research. Computers in Human Behavior, 25, 1089–1101.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Dworkin, A. (1981). Pornography: Men possessing women. New York: Perigee Books.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Elliott, S., & Ngo-McKelvy, J. (2015). Talking sex: Parents, schools, and sexuality. In T. S. Weinberg & S. Newmahr (Eds.), Selves, symbols, and sexualities: An interactionist anthology (pp. 77–88). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Furby, L., Weinrott, M. R., & Blackshaw, L. (1989). Sex offender recidivism: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 105(1), 3–30.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Gergen, K. J. (2000). Psychological science in a postmodern context. American Psychologist, 56, 803–813.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Gibeaut, J. (2007). A deal with death. American Bar Association Journal (January Issue), 12–13.

  38. Gill, R. (2012). Media, empowerment and the ‘sexualization of culture’ debates. Sex Roles, 66(11–12), 736–745.

    Google Scholar 

  39. Glickman, C. (2000). The language of sex-positivity. Electronic Journal of Human Sexuality, 3. Retrieved from http://www.ejhs.org/volume3/sexpositive.htm

  40. Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Gooren, J. C. W. (2011). Deciphering the ambiguous menace of sexuality for the innocence of childhood. Critical Criminology, 19, 29–42.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Grady, M. D., & Brodersen, M. (2008). In their voices: Perspectives of incarcerated sex offenders on their treatment experiences. Sexual Addiction and Compulsivity, 15, 320–345.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Griffin, T., & Stitt, R. G. (2010). Random activities theory: The case for a “black swan” criminology. Critical Criminology, 18, 57–72.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Hall, R. C. W., & Hall, R. C. W. (2007). A profile of pedophilia: Definition, characteristics of offenders, recidivism, treatment outcomes, and forensic issues. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 82, 457–471.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Hanson, R. K., Bourgon, G., Helmus, L., & Hodgson, S. (2009). The principles of effective correctional treatment also apply to sexual offenders: A meta-analysis. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 36, 865–891.

    Google Scholar 

  46. Hanson, R. K., & Bussiere, M. T. (1998). Predicting relapse: A meta-analysis of sexual offender recidivism studies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 348–362.

    Google Scholar 

  47. Hanson, R. K., Morton, K. E., & Harris, A. J. R. (2003). Sexual offender recidivism risk: What we know and what we need to know. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 989, 154–166.

    Google Scholar 

  48. Harrison, T. (2005). Availability of emergency contraception: A survey of hospital emergency department staff. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 46(2), 105–110.

    Google Scholar 

  49. Hayes, S., & Carpenter, B. (2012). Out of time: The moral temporality of sex, crime and taboo. Critical Criminology, 20, 141–152.

    Google Scholar 

  50. Hildebrandt, A. (2014). Routes to decriminalization: A comparative analysis of the legalization of same-sex sexual acts. Sexualities, 17, 230–253.

    Google Scholar 

  51. Hinderliter, A. C. (2011). Defining paraphilia in DSM-5: Do not disregard grammar. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 37(1), 17–31.

    Google Scholar 

  52. Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of delinquency. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Huebner, D. M., Rebchook, G. M., & Kegeles, S. M. (2004). Experiences of harassment, discrimination, and physical violence among young gay and bisexual men. American Journal of Public Health, 94, 1200.

    Google Scholar 

  54. Irvine, J. M. (2004). Talk about sex: The battles over sex education in the United States. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  55. Jahnke, S., Imhoff, R., & Hoyer, J. (2014). Stigmatization of people with pedophilia: Two comparative surveys. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 44(1), 21–34.

  56. Janus, E. S. (2003). Legislative responses to sexual violence: An overview. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 989, 247–264.

    Google Scholar 

  57. Kersting, K. (2003). New hope for sex offender treatment. Monitor on Psychology, 34(7), 52–53.

    Google Scholar 

  58. Kirby, D. B. (2008). The impact of abstinence and comprehensive sex and STD/HIV education programs on adolescent sexual behavior. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 5(3), 18–27.

    Google Scholar 

  59. Kleinplatz, P. J., Menard, A. D., & Lawless, S. (2014). Lessons about optimal sexual experiences from remarkable lovers. In A. C. Michalos (Ed.), Encyclopedia of quality of life and wellbeing research (pp. 3540–3543). New York: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  60. Kleinplatz, P. J., & Moser, C. (2005). Is S/M pathological? Lesbian & Gay Psychology Review, 6, 255–260.

    Google Scholar 

  61. Kohler, P., Manhart, L., & Lafferty, W. (2007). Abstinence-only and comprehensive sex education and the initiation of sexual activity and teen pregnancy. Journal of Adolescent Health, 42, 344–351.

    Google Scholar 

  62. LaFrance, D. E., Loe, M., & Brown, S. C. (2012). “Yes means yes:” A new approach to sexual assault prevention and positive sexuality promotion. American Journal of Sexuality Education, 7, 445–460.

    Google Scholar 

  63. Lamb, S., & Peterson, Z. D. (2012). Adolescent girls’ sexual empowerment: Two feminists explore the concept. Sex Roles, 66(11–12), 703–712.

    Google Scholar 

  64. Laws, D. R. (2002). Sexual offending is a public health problem: Are we doing enough? In T. Ward, D. R. Laws, & S. M. Hudson (Eds.), Sexual deviance: Issues and controversies. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  65. Levenson, J., & Cotter, L. (2005). The impact of residency restrictions: 1,000 feet from danger or one step from absurd? International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 49, 168–178.

    Google Scholar 

  66. Levenson, J., & Hern, A. L. (2007). Sex offender residence restrictions: Unintended consequences and community re-entry. Justice Research and Policy, 9, 59–73.

    Google Scholar 

  67. Levenson, J., & Tewksbury, R. (2009). Collateral damage: Family members of registered sex offenders. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 34, 54–68.

    Google Scholar 

  68. Levine, M. P., & Troiden, R. R. (1988). The myth of sexual compulsivity. Journal of Sex Research, 25(3), 347–363.

    Google Scholar 

  69. Lindberg, L., & Maddow-Zimet, I. (2012). Consequences of sex education on teen and young adult sexual behaviors and outcomes. Journal of Adolescent Health, 51(4), 332–338.

    Google Scholar 

  70. Lipset, S. M. (1997). American exceptionalism: A double-edged sword. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.

    Google Scholar 

  71. Logan, W. A. (2003). Sex offender registration and community notification: Emerging legal and research issues. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 989, 337–351.

    Google Scholar 

  72. Losel, F., & Schmucker, M. (2005). The effectiveness of treatment for sexual offenders: A comprehensive meta-analysis. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 1, 117–146.

  73. Lovins, B., Lowenkamp, C. T., & Latessa, E. J. (2009). Applying the risk principle to sex offenders: Can treatment make some sex offenders worse? The Prison Journal, 89, 344–357.

    Google Scholar 

  74. Luker, K. (2007). When sex goes to school: Warring views on sex—and sex education—since the Sixties. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.

    Google Scholar 

  75. MacKinnon, C. A. (1989). Toward a feminist theory of the state. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  76. Maguire, M., & Singer, J. K. (2010). A false sense of security: Moral panic driven sex offender legislation. Critical Criminology, 19, 301–312.

    Google Scholar 

  77. Mailloux, D. L., Abrecen, J., Serin, R., Cousineau, C., Malcolm, B., & Looman, J. (2003). Dosage of treatment to sexual offenders: Are we overprescribing? International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 47, 171–184.

    Google Scholar 

  78. Marshall, W. L. (2005). Therapist style in sexual offender treatment: Influence on indices of change. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 17, 109–116.

    Google Scholar 

  79. Marshall, W. L., Marshall, L. E., & Serran, G. A. (2007). Strategies in the treatment of paraphilias: A critical review (pp. 162–182). XVII: Annual Review of Sex Research.

    Google Scholar 

  80. Marshall, W. L., Ward, T., Mann, R. E., Moulden, H., Fernandez, Y. M., Serrin, G., & Marshall, L. E. (2005). Working positively with sexual offenders: Maximizing the effectiveness of treatment. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 20, 1096–1114.

    Google Scholar 

  81. McNair, B. (2013). Porno? Chic!: How pornography changed the world and made it a better place. New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  82. Meloy, M. L. (2005). The sex offender next door: An analysis of recidivism, risk factors and deterrence of sex offenders on probation. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 16, 211–236.

    Google Scholar 

  83. Meloy, M., Boatwright, J., & Curtis, K. (2013). Views from the top and bottom: Lawmakers and practitioners discuss sex offender laws. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 38, 616–638.

    Google Scholar 

  84. Miner, M. (2006). Sexual offender treatment: A forensic vs. human sexuality perspective. Keynote address at the 23rd Annual Conference of the National Organization of Forensic Social Work, Chicago, IL.

  85. Monto, M. A., & McRee, N. (2005). A comparison of the male customers of female street prostitutes with national samples of men. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 49, 505–529.

    Google Scholar 

  86. Moser, C. (2009). When is an unusual sexual interest a mental disorder? Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38, 323–325.

    Google Scholar 

  87. National Association of Social Workers. (1999). Code of ethics. Washington, DC: Author.

    Google Scholar 

  88. Neuilly, M. A., & Zgoba, K. (2006). Assessing the possibility of a pedophilia panic and contagion effect between France and the United States. Victims and Offenders, 1, 225–254.

    Google Scholar 

  89. Ogle, R. S., & Batton, C. (2009). Revisiting patriarchy: Its conceptualization and operationalization in criminology. Critical Criminology, 17(3), 159–182.

    Google Scholar 

  90. Oliver, B. (2012). A convict criminology perspective on sex offender laws: America’s “War against sex offenders”. Journal of Prisoners on Prisons, 21, 119–131.

    Google Scholar 

  91. Ortmann, D. M., & Sprott, R. (2012). Sexual outsiders: Understanding BDSM sexualities and communities. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

    Google Scholar 

  92. Paine, M. L., & Hansen, D. J. (2002). Factors influencing children to self-disclose sexual abuse. Clinical Psychology Review, 22(2), 271–295.

    Google Scholar 

  93. Pepinski, H. (2002). A struggle to inquire without becoming an un-critical non-criminologist. Critical Criminology, 11, 61–73.

    Google Scholar 

  94. Pepinski, H. (2013). Peacemaking criminology. Critical Criminology, 21, 319–339.

    Google Scholar 

  95. Pew Research Center (2014). Gay marriage around the world. Accessed 20 October 2014. http://www.pewforum.org/2013/12/19/gay-marriage-around-the-world-2013/

  96. Pfafflin, F., & Eher, R. (2003). Guest editorial: What to do with sexual offenders? International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 47, 361–365.

    Google Scholar 

  97. Popovic, M. (2006). Psychosocial diversity as the best representation of human normality across cultures. Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 21, 171–186.

    Google Scholar 

  98. Potter, H. (2013). Intersectional criminology: Interrogating identity and power in criminological research and theory. Critical Criminology, 21, 305–318.

    Google Scholar 

  99. Prescott, J. J., & Rockoff, J. E. (2011). Do sex offender registration and notification laws affect criminal behavior? Journal of Law and Economics, 54, 161–206.

    Google Scholar 

  100. Prochaska, J. O., & Velicer, W. F. (1997). The Transtheoretical Model of health behavior change. American Journal of Health Promotion, 12, 38–48.

    Google Scholar 

  101. Quinn, J. F., Forsyth, C. J., & Mullen-Quinn, C. (2004). Societal reaction to sex offenders: A review of the origins and results of the myths surrounding their crimes and treatment amenability. Deviant Behavior, 25, 215–232.

    Google Scholar 

  102. Radford, J., & Stanko, E. (1991). Violence against women and children: The contradictions of crime control under patriarchy. In K. Stenson & D. Cowell (Eds.), The politics of crime control (pp. 188–202). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  103. Richardson, L. (2000). New writing practices in qualitative research. Sociology of Sport Journal, 17, 5–20.

    Google Scholar 

  104. Robbers, M. L. P. (2009). Lifers on the outside: Sex offenders and disintegrative shaming. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 53, 5–28.

    Google Scholar 

  105. Robinson, L. O. (2003). Sex offender management: The public policy challenges. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 989, 1–7.

    Google Scholar 

  106. Ronel, N., & Elisha, E. (2011). A different perspective: Introducing positive criminology. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 55, 305–325.

    Google Scholar 

  107. Ronel, N., & Segev, D. (2014). Positive criminology in practice. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 58, 1389–1407.

    Google Scholar 

  108. Rubin, G. (1984). Thinking sex: Notes for a radical theory of the politics of sexuality. In C. Vance (Ed.), Exploring female sexuality (pp. 267–319). Boston, MA: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  109. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and wellbeing. American Psychologist, 55, 68–78.

    Google Scholar 

  110. Saez, M. (2011). Same-sex marriage, same-sex cohabitation, and same-sex families around the world: Why same is so different. American Journal of Gender and Social Policy, 19, 1.

    Google Scholar 

  111. Scott, J. (1998). Changing attitudes to sexual morality: A cross-national comparison. Sociology, 32(4), 815–845.

    Google Scholar 

  112. Sherkat, D. E., & Ellison, C. G. (1997). The cognitive structure of a moral crusade: Conservative Protestantism and opposition to pornography. Social Forces, 75(3), 957–980.

    Google Scholar 

  113. Skinner, T., & Taylor, H. (2009). “Being shut out in the dark:” Young survivors’ experiences of reporting a sexual offence. Feminist Criminology, 4, 130–150.

    Google Scholar 

  114. Soothill, K. (2010). Sex offender recidivism. Crime and Justice, 39, 145–211.

    Google Scholar 

  115. Sparkes, A. C. (2002). Telling tales in sport and physical activity: A qualitative journey. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

    Google Scholar 

  116. Sullivan, D. (2006). Editor’s note. Contemporary Justice Review, 9, 119–125.

    Google Scholar 

  117. Surette, R. (2007). Media, crime, and criminal justice: Images, realities, and policies. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

    Google Scholar 

  118. Tavris, C., & Wade, C. (1984). The longest war (2nd ed.). San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

    Google Scholar 

  119. Tewksbury, R. (2012). Stigmatization of sex offenders. Deviant Behavior, 33, 606–623.

    Google Scholar 

  120. Thomas, J. N. (2013). Outsourcing moral authority: The internal secularization of evangelicals’ anti-pornography narratives. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 52(3), 457–475.

    Google Scholar 

  121. Thomas, J. N., & Olson, D. V. A. (2012). Evangelical elites’ changing responses to homosexuality 1960–2009. Sociology of Religion, 73(3), 239–272.

  122. Tiefer, L. (1996). The medicalization of sexuality: Conceptual, normative, and professional issues. Annual Review of Sex Research, 7(1), 252–282.

    Google Scholar 

  123. US House of Representatives, Committee on Government Reform. (2004). The content of federally funded abstinence-only education programs, prepared for Rep. Henry A. Waxman. Washington, DC: The House.

  124. Viki, G. T., Fullerton, I., Raggett, H., Tait, F., & Wiltshire, S. (2012). The role of dehumanization in attitudes toward the social exclusion and rehabilitation of sex offenders. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 42, 2349–2367.

    Google Scholar 

  125. Walton, J. S., & Chou, S. (2014). The effectiveness of psychological treatment for reducing recidivism in child molesters: A systematic review of randomized and nonrandomized studies. Trauma, Violence, and Abuse. doi:10.1177/1524838014537905.

  126. Ward, T., & Brown, M. (2004). The good lives model and conceptual issues in offender rehabilitation. Psychology, Crime and Law, 10, 243–257.

    Google Scholar 

  127. Ward, T., Day, A., & Casey, S. (2006). Offender rehabilitation down under. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 43(3), 73–83.

    Google Scholar 

  128. Ward, T., & Marshall, W. L. (2004). Good lives, aetiology and the rehabilitation of sex offenders: A bridging theory. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 10, 153–169.

    Google Scholar 

  129. Watters, D. N. (2006). Forensic sexology versus clinical sexology: Some cautionary comments. Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 21, 143–148.

    Google Scholar 

  130. Weitzer, R. (2006). Moral crusade against prostitution. Society, 43(3), 33–38.

    Google Scholar 

  131. Weitzer, R. (2007). The social construction of sex trafficking: Ideology and institutionalization of a moral crusade. Politics and Society, 35(3), 447–475.

    Google Scholar 

  132. Weitzer, R. (2010). The mythology of prostitution: Advocacy research and public policy. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 7(1), 15–29.

    Google Scholar 

  133. West, F. (2000). Paedophilia: Plague or panic? The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry, 11, 511–531.

    Google Scholar 

  134. Widmer, E. D., Treas, J., & Newcomb, R. (1998). Attitudes toward nonmarital sex in 24 countries. Journal of Sex Research, 35(4), 349–358.

    Google Scholar 

  135. Williams, D. J. (2009). Turning monsters into people: A reflexive study of sex offenders and leisure. Journal of Unconventional Parks, Tourism, and Recreation Research, 2(1), 2–6.

    Google Scholar 

  136. Williams, D. J., & Burnett, J. (2012). Interrelated problems of silencing voices and sexual crime: Convict criminology insights for reducing victimization. Journal of Prisoners on Prisons, 21, 132–138.

    Google Scholar 

  137. Williams, D. J., Prior, E. E., & Wegner, J. (2013). Resolving social problems associated with sexuality: Can a “sex positive” approach help? Social Work, 58, 273–276.

    Google Scholar 

  138. Williams, D. J., Thomas, J. N., Prior, E. E., & Walters, W. (2015). Introducing a multidisciplinary framework of positive sexuality. Journal of Positive Sexuality, 1, 6–11.

  139. Winkelman, S. B., Smith, K. V., Brinkley, J., & Knox, D. (2014). Sexting on the college campus. Electronic Journal of Human Sexuality, 17. Retrieved from http://www.ejhs.org/volume17/Sexting.html

  140. World Health Organization. (2006). Defining sexual health: Report of a technical consultation on sexual health. Geneva, Switzerland: Author.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to D. J. Williams.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Williams, D.J., Thomas, J.N. & Prior, E.E. Moving Full-Speed Ahead in the Wrong Direction? A Critical Examination of US Sex-Offender Policy from a Positive Sexuality Model. Crit Crim 23, 277–294 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10612-015-9270-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • Sexual Offender
  • Restorative Justice
  • Critical Criminology
  • Pedophilia
  • Gender Identity Disorder