Critical Criminology

, Volume 22, Issue 1, pp 49–63 | Cite as

“I Don’t Know Where it is Safe”: Trans Women’s Experiences of Violence

  • Barbara PerryEmail author
  • D. Ryan Dyck


Scholars are only beginning to take account of how trans people experience violence motivated by their gender identity and expression. Based on a series of focus groups and interviews across Canada, this article aims to further this area of inquiry. The fear of victimization, and thus hyper-vigilance, seems to be particularly acute among trans women. Many of them spoke of the multiple and complex layers through which they defined “safety” and lack thereof. We share their experiences and perceptions of the threat of hate motivated violence, and their subsequent reactions.


Gender Identity Sexual Desire Hate Crime Normative Hierarchy Gender Expression 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Ontario Institute of TechnologyOshawaCanada
  2. 2.Egale Canada Human Rights TrustTorontoCanada

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