Critical Criminology

, Volume 21, Issue 3, pp 359–373 | Cite as

Green Criminology and Crimes of the Economy: Theory, Research and Praxis



This paper describes several key developments and dimensions in the field of ‘green criminology’ and discusses some of the relevant debates and controversies arising. It then outlines overlaps and connections with other areas of work within critical criminology. The central focus of the paper is on crimes of the economy as they affect the environment and a substantive, illustrative case study is provided on environmental crimes and harms associated with the oil industry. The paper concludes with some critical observations on where directions in theory, policy and practice may need to turn in a post-growth world.


Gross Domestic Product Organize Crime Restorative Justice Environmental Harm Environmental Crime 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Achenbach, J. (2011). A hole at the bottom of the ocean: The race to kill the BP oil gusher. London: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  2. Agamben, G. (2009). Il regno e la gloria: Per una genealogia teologica dell’economia e del governo. Turin: Bollati Boringhieri.Google Scholar
  3. Amnesty International. (2001). Oil in Sudan. London: Amnesty International.Google Scholar
  4. Banerjee, S. (2013). Arctic voices: Resistance at the tipping point. New York: Seven Stories.Google Scholar
  5. Beck, U. (1992). Risk society: Towards a new modernity. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  6. Beirne, P. (1995). The use and abuse of animals in criminology: A brief history and current review. Social Justice, 22(1), 5–31.Google Scholar
  7. Beirne, P. (2009). Confronting animal abuse. Lanham: Roman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  8. Bergin, T. (2011). Spills and spin: The inside story of BP. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  9. Best, S., & Nocella, A. (Eds.). (2004). Terrorists or freedom fighters? Reflections on the liberation of animals. Herndon, VA: Lantern Books.Google Scholar
  10. Braithwaite, J. (1989). Crime, shame and reintegration. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brisman, A., & South, N. (2013). For a green-cultural criminology. Crime, Media, Culture,. doi: 10.1177/1741659012467026.Google Scholar
  12. Caneppele, S., Riccardi, M., & Standridge, P. (2013, in press) Green energy and black economy: Mafia investments in the wind power sector in Italy. Crime, Law and Social Change.Google Scholar
  13. Cardwell, P., French, D., Hall, M. (2011). Tackling environmental crime in the European Union: The case of the missing victim? Environmental Law and Management, 23(3), 113–121.Google Scholar
  14. Carrabine, E., Cox, P., Lee, M., Plummer, K., & South, N. (2009). Criminology: A sociological introduction. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  15. De Crescenzo, D. (2008). Sporco, troppo sporco. Narcomafie, 7–8, 15–16.Google Scholar
  16. Doward, J., MacAskill, E., & Rogers, R. (2011). Revealed: Palin’s plea to BP chief for pipeline year after Alaskan oil spill. The Observer, 12th June.Google Scholar
  17. Dworkin, R. M. (1980). Is wealth a value? Journal of Legal Studies, IX(2), 191–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Eman, K., Meško, G., & Fields, C. (2009). Crimes against the environment: Green criminology and research challenges in Slovenia. Journal of Criminal Justice and Security, 11(4), 574–592.Google Scholar
  19. Everest, L. (2003). Oil, power and empire. New York: Common Courage Press.Google Scholar
  20. Ferrell, J. (2013). Tangled up in green: Cultural criminology and green criminology. In N. South & A. Brisman (Eds.), Routledge international handbook of green criminology. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  21. Fioramonti, L. (2013). Gross domestic problem: The politics behind the world’s most powerful number. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  22. Frazier, I. (2013). In the beautiful, threatened north. New York Review of Books. 7th March, pp. 37–38.Google Scholar
  23. Fussey, P., & South, N. (2012). Heading toward a new criminogenic climate: Climate change, political economy and environmental security. In R. White (Ed.), Climate change from a criminological perspective. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  24. Gibbs, C., Gore, M., McGarrell, E., & Rivers, L. (2010). Introducing conservation criminology: Towards interdisciplinary scholarship on environmental crimes and risks. British Journal of Criminology, 50(1), 124–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Goldenberg, S. (2013). US dark money funds climate skeptics. The Guardian, 15th February.Google Scholar
  26. Hall, M. (2012). State responsibility for the adverse impacts of climate change on individuals: Assessing the potential for an interdisciplinary approach. In S. Farrall, D. French, & T. Ahmed (Eds.), Climate change: Legal and criminological implications (pp. 215–240). Oxford: Hart.Google Scholar
  27. Halsey, M. (2004). Against “green” criminology. British Journal of Criminology, 44, 833–853.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Halsey, M. (2013). Conservation criminology and the “General Accident” of climate change. In N. South & A. Brisman (Eds.), The Routledge international handbook of green criminology. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  29. Halsey, M., & White, R. (1998). Crime, ecophilosophy and environmental harm. Theoretical Criminology, 2(3), 345–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Harvey, D. (2011). A brief history of neoliberalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Hauck, M. (2007). Non-compliance in small-scale fisheries: A threat to security? In P. Beine & N. South (Eds.), Issues in green criminology. Cullompton: Willan.Google Scholar
  32. Hayek, F. A. (1973). Law, legislation and liberty. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  33. Henry, S., & Milovanovic, M. (1991–1992). Constitutive criminology: The maturation of critical theory. Criminology, 29, 293–316.Google Scholar
  34. Higgins, P. (2010). Eradicating ecocide: Laws and governance to prevent the destruction of our planet. London: Shepheard-Walwyn.Google Scholar
  35. Higgins, P., Short, D., & South, N. (2013, in press) Protecting the planet: A proposal for a law of ecocide. Crime, Law and Social Change. doi: 10.1007/s10611-013-9413-6.
  36. Katz, R. (2010). The corporate crimes of Dow chemical and the failure to regulate environmental pollution. Critical Criminology, 18(4), 295–306.Google Scholar
  37. Keynes, J. M. (1978 [1936]). The general theory of employment, interest and money. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  38. Klare, M. T. (2004). Blood and oil. New York: Metropolitan Books.Google Scholar
  39. Kollewe, J., & Macalister, T. (2012). Lloyd’s fears oil rush will ruin ecosystem. The Guardian, 12th April.Google Scholar
  40. Konrad, J., & Shroder, T. (2011). Fire on the horizon: The untold story of the Gulf oil disaster. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  41. Kramer, R., & Michalowski, R. (2012). Is global warming a state-corporate crime? In R. White (Ed.), Climate change from a criminological perspective (pp. 71–88). London: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kramer, R., Michalowski, R., & Kauzlarich, D. (2002). The origins and development of the concept and theory of state-corporate crime. Crime and Delinquency, 48(2), 263–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lemieux, A., & Clarke, R. (2009). The international ban on ivory sales and its effects on elephant poaching in Africa. British Journal of Criminology, 49(4), 451–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Long, M., Stretesky, P., Lynch, M., & Fenwick, E. (2012). Crime in the coal industry: Implications for green criminology and treadmill of production. Organization and Environment, 25, 328–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lynch, M. (1990). The greening of criminology: A perspective on the 1990s. Critical Criminologist, 2(3–4), 11–12.Google Scholar
  46. Lynch, M. (2013). Reflections on green criminology and its boundaries: Comparing environmental and criminal victimization and considering crime from an eco-city perspective. In N. South & A. Brisman (Eds.), The Routledge international handbook of green criminology. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  47. Lynch, M., Burns, R., & Stretesky, P. (2010). Global warming and state-corporate crime: The politicalization of global warming under the Bush administration. Crime Law and Social Change, 54, 213–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lynch, M., & Stretesky, P. (2007). Green criminology in the United States. In P. Berine & N. South (Eds.), Issues in green criminology: Confronting harms against environments, humanity and other animals (pp. 248–269). Cullompton: Willan.Google Scholar
  49. Maass, P. (2011). What happened at the Macondowell? The New York Review of Books. 29th September, pp. 38–41.Google Scholar
  50. Macalister, T. (2011). So, was this a war for oil? The Guardian, 3rd September.Google Scholar
  51. Macalister, T. (2013). BP faces further £21.7bn Deepwater blowout claim. The Guardian, 6th February.Google Scholar
  52. Mandel, R. (1999). Deadly transfers and the global playground: Transnational security threats in a disorderly world. Westport: Praeger.Google Scholar
  53. Parra, F. (2004). Oil politics: A modern history of petroleum. New York: I.B. Taurus.Google Scholar
  54. Piccoli, G. (2008). Rifiuti, camorra e mala amministrazione. Narcomafie, 7–8, 12–21.Google Scholar
  55. Ruggiero, V. (1996). Organised and corporate crime in Europe: Offers that can’t be refused. Aldershot: Dartmouth.Google Scholar
  56. Ruggiero, V. (2000). Crime and markets. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Ruggiero, V. (2010). Dirty collar crime in Naples. UN Freedom from Fear. March, 29–31.Google Scholar
  58. Ruggiero, V. (2012). Introduction: The organisation of crime. In P. Gounev & V. Ruggiero (Eds.), Corruption and organized crime in Europe: Illegal partnerships. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  59. Ruggiero, V. (2013). The crimes of the economy. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  60. Ruggiero, V., & South, N. (2010). Green criminology and dirty collar crime. Critical Criminology, 18, 251–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Schneider, J. (2012). Sold into extinction: The global trade in endangered species. Westport: Praeger.Google Scholar
  62. Schwartz, M. (2011). How fast can he cook a chicken? London Review of Books. 6th October, pp. 25–26.Google Scholar
  63. Skidelsky, R., & Skidelsky, E. (2012). How much is enough? The love for money and the case for the good life. London: Allen Lane.Google Scholar
  64. Smart, C. (1990). Feminist approaches to criminology or postmodern woman meets atavistic man. In L. Gelsthorpe & A. Morris (Eds.), Feminist perspectives in criminology. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  65. Sollund, R. (2013). The victimisation of women, children and non-human species through trafficking and trade: Crimes understood through an ecofeminist perspective. In N. South & A. Brisman (Eds.), The Routledge international handbook of green criminology. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  66. South, N. (1998a). A green field for criminology? A proposal for a perspective. Theoretical Criminology, 2(2), 211–233.Google Scholar
  67. South, N. (1998b). Corporate and state crimes against the environment: Foundations for a green perspective in European criminology. In V. Ruggiero, N. South, & I. Taylor (Eds.), The new European criminology (pp. 443–461). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  68. South, N. (2007). The ‘corporate colonisation of nature’: Bio-prospecting, bio-piracy and the development of green criminology. In P. Beirne & N. South (Eds.), Issues in green criminology (pp. 230–247). Devon: Willan.Google Scholar
  69. South, N., & Beirne, P. (Eds.). (2006). Green criminology. Aldershot: Dartmouth.Google Scholar
  70. South, N., & Brisman, A. (2012). Critical green criminology, environmental rights and crimes of exploitation. In S. Winlow & R. Atkinson (Eds.), New directions in crime and deviance. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  71. South, N., & Brisman, A. (Eds.). (2013). The Routledge international handbook of green criminology. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  72. South, N., Brisman, A., & Beirne, P. (2013). A guide to a green criminology. In N. South & A. Brisman (Eds.), The Routledge international handbook of green criminology (pp. 27–42). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  73. Spencer, D., & Fitzgerald, A. (2013). Three ecologies, transversality and victimization: The case of the British Petroleum oil spill. Crime, Law and Social Change, 59, 209–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Steffy, L. (2011). Drowning in oil: BP and the reckless pursuit of profit. New York: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  75. Stiglitz, J. (2012). The price of inequality. London: Allen Lane.Google Scholar
  76. Sutherland, E. (1924). Criminology. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company.Google Scholar
  77. Switzer, J. (2002). Oil and violence in Sudan. Social Policy, 15, 6–19.Google Scholar
  78. Terni, M. (2011). La mano invisibile della politica. Pace e guerra tra stato e mercato. Milan: Garzanti.Google Scholar
  79. US Government Printing Office. (2011). Deep water: The Gulf oil disaster and the future of offshore drilling. Washington: US GPO.Google Scholar
  80. van Solinge, T. B. (2008). Crime, conflicts and ecology in Africa. In R. Sollund (Ed.), Global harms: Ecological crime and speciesism. New York: Nova Science.Google Scholar
  81. Walters, R. (2010). Eco crime. In J. Muncie, D. Talbot, & R. Walters (Eds.), Crime: Local and global (pp. 174–208). Cullompton: Willan.Google Scholar
  82. Walters, R. (2014). Organized crime and the environment. In G. Bruinsma & D. Weisburd (Eds.), Encyclopaedia of criminology and criminal justice. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  83. Walters, R., & Solomon-Westerhuis, D. (2013, in press). Green crime and environmental courts. Crime, Law and Social Change.Google Scholar
  84. Watts, M. (2008). Imperial oil: The anatomy of a Nigerian oil insurgency. Working Paper no. 17. Berkeley: University of California.Google Scholar
  85. Wellsmith, M. (2010). The applicability of crime prevention to problems of environmental harm: A consideration of illicit trade in endangered species. In R. White (Ed.), Global environmental harm: Criminological perspectives. Cullompton: Willan.Google Scholar
  86. White, R. (2008). Crimes against nature: Environmental criminology and ecological justice. Cullompton: Willan.Google Scholar
  87. White, R. (Ed.). (2009). Environmental crime: A reader. Devon: Willan Publishing.Google Scholar
  88. White, R. (2010). Globalisation and environmental harm. In R. White (Ed.), Global environmental harm: Criminological perspectives. Cullompton: Willan.Google Scholar
  89. White, R. (2011). Transnational environmental crime: Towards an eco-global criminology. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  90. White, R. (2013a). Environmental crime and problem-solving courts. Crime, Law and Social Change. doi: 10.1007/s10611-013-9414-5.
  91. White, R. (2013b). Eco-global criminology and the political economy of environmental harm. In N. South & A. Brisman (Eds.), The Routledge international handbook of green criminology. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  92. Wolfe, B. (2011). Green-collar crime: Environmental crime and justice in the sociological perspective. Sociology Compass, 5(7), 499–511.Google Scholar
  93. Wright, G. (2011). Conceptualising and combating transnational environmental crime. Trends in Organized Crime, 14, 332–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Wyatt, T. (2012). Green criminology and wildlife trafficking: The illegal fur and falcon trades in Russia Far East. Saarbrücken: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing.Google Scholar
  95. Zahn, M. (1999). Presidential address: Thoughts on the future of criminology. Criminology, 37(1), 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Zellen, B. (Ed.). (2013). The fast-changing Arctic: Rethinking Arctic security for a warmer world. Calgary: University of Calgary Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of LawMiddlesex UniversityLondonUK
  2. 2.Department of SociologyUniversity of EssexColchesterUK

Personalised recommendations