Advertisement

Crime, Law and Social Change

, Volume 67, Issue 3, pp 333–351 | Cite as

The sentinel and the rebel. Multi-choice policing in Burundi and the state-centered approach of security sector reform

  • Gilles BiaumetEmail author
Article

Abstract

This article seeks to develop a back-to-back approach to the notions of ‘security governance’ and ‘security sector reform’. It draws on two small-scale grassroots policing arrangements in Burundi, arguably falling out-of-scope of state management, to question the notion of ‘wide security sector reform’ as promoted by the development aid community. The use of informal sentinels, guarding almost every commercial and domestic buildings in Bujumbura and the reconversion of bandits into guards in the countryside, make both a case for considering the grassroots policing arrangements in Burundi as blind spots of security sector reform. Accordingly, the article shows how, in a transitioning context where different agents and normativities – namely the government, the police, corporate security actors, donor states and institutions, individuals, transnational norms on (private) security and local dynamics – are intertwined in the provision of security, discrepancies between donor discourses and local dynamics remain at work. While recent conceptualizations of security sector reform formally depart from state-centered views of security governance, implementation on the ground still resists holistic approaches of security. To a certain extent, these discrepancies reflect the theoretical debate over the state’s role in security governance, particularly in contexts where concerns about democratic oversight, the rule of law and accountability arise. In this sense, the article intends to contribute to recent insights on critical security sector reform and nodal security governance.

Keywords

Private Security Security Force International Relation Security Actor Security Sector 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Baker, B. (2008). Multi-choice policing in Africa. Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schroeder, U. C., Chappuis, F., & Kocak, D. (2014). Security Sector Reform and the Emergence of Hybrid Security Governance. International Peacekeeping, 21(2), 214–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dupont, B. (2004). Security in the age of networks. Policing and Society, 14(1), 76–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wood, J. (2006). Research and innovation in the field of security: a nodal governance view. In J. Wood & B. Dupont (Eds.), Democracy, society, and the governance of security. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hoogenboom, B. (2010). The Governance of Policing and Security. Palgrave Macmillan UK.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Reyntjens, F., & Minority Rights Group (2000). Burundi: Prospects for peace. London: Minority Rights Group.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Boshoff, H., Vrey, W., & Rautenbach, G. (2010). The Burundi Peace Process. Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Buyoya, P. (2012). The inter-burundian negotiations: A long walk towards peace. Paris: L'Harmattan.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wilén, N., Ambrosetti, D., & Birantamije, G. (2015). Sending peacekeepers abroad, sharing power at home: Burundi in Somalia. Journal of Eastern African Studies, 9(2), 307–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nindorera, W. (2011). La police nationale, le renforcement démocratique et la consolidation de la paix au Burundi. Canadian Journal of Development Studies/Revue canadienne d'études du développement, 32(1), 79–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hills, A., Siperstein, G. N., Wieseler, N. A., & Hanson, R. H. (2000). Policing Africa: internal security and the limits of liberalization. London: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Arusha Peace and Reconciliation Agreement for Burundi. Protocol III. Peace and Security for All. 28 August 2000.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rumin, S. (2012). Burundi. In A. Bryden & V. Scherrer (Eds.), Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration and Security Sector Reform: Insights from UN Experience in Afghanistan, Burundi, the Central African Republic and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. LIT Verlag: Münster.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lemarchand, R. (1996). Burundi: ethnic conflict and genocide. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mora, S. (2008). La réforme du secteur de la sécurité au Burundi. New York: International Center for Transitional Justice.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Taylor, D. (2013). We have no influence”: international discourse and the Instrumentalisation of transitional justice in Burundi. Stability: International Journal of Security and Development, 2(3).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Vandeginste, S. (2011). Bypassing the prohibition of amnesty for human rights crimes under international law: lessons learned from the Burundi peace process. Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights, 29(2), 189–211.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Law n°1/020 of 31 December 2004 on the creation, organization, missions, composition, and functioning of the National Police.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nindorera, W. (2012). The CNDD-FDD: The Path from Armed to Political Struggle, Berghof Transitions Series, 2.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Centre for International Governance Innovation (2009). Security Sector Reform Monitor: Burundi, 1.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    See DEVCO-EuropeAid (2014). Évaluation conjointe de la coopération de l’Allemagne, de la Belgique, de la Commission européenne, de la France, des Pays-Bas, du Royaume-Uni et de la Suède avec le Burundi. Brussels: European Commission.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Decree n°1/100/276 of 27 September 2007 on the organization, missions and functioning of the General Direction of the National Police.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Law n°1/16 of 31 December 2010 on the status of PNB constables; Law n°1/17 of 31 December on the status of PNB brigadiers; Law n°1/18 of 31 December 2010 on the status of PNB officers.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Transparency International UK (2014). Étude sur les aspects de l’intégrité de la Police Nationale du Burundi. London: Transparency International UK.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ball, N. (2014). Putting governance at the Heart of Security Sector Reform: Lessons from the Burundi-Netherlands Security Sector Development Programme. CRU Report. The Hague: Clingendael.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nindorera, W. (2010). Des principaux défis de la Police Nationale pour une meilleure sécurité publique et le renforcement démocratique. Bujumbura: CENAP.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Paye, O. (2005). La gouvernance: D'une notion polysémique à un concept politologique. Études internationales, 36(1), 13–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Webber, M., Croft, S., Howorth, J., Terriff, T., & Krahmann, E. (2004). The governance of European security. Review of International Studies, 30(01), 3–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Krahmann, E. (2003). Conceptualizing security governance. Cooperation and Conflict, 38(1), 5–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kirchner, E. J., & Sperling, J. (Eds.) (2007). Global security governance: Competing perceptions of security in the twenty-first century. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Price, R. (1998). Reversing the gun sights: transnational civil society targets land mines. International Organization, 52(03), 613–644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chesterman, S., & Lehnardt, C. (2007). From mercenaries to market: The rise and regulation of private military companies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Avant, D. (2005). The market for force: the consequences of privatizing security. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cockayne, J. (Ed.) (2009). Beyond market forces: regulating the global security industry. New York: International Peace Institute.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Shearing, C., & Stenning, P. (1981). Modern private security: its growth and implications. Crime and justice, 3, 193–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wakefield, A. (2012). Selling security. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Brodeur, J. P. (2010). The policing web. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Jones, T., & Newburn, T. (1995). How big is the private security sector? Policing and Society: An International Journal, 5(3), 221–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wood, J., & Shearing, C. (2013). Imagining security. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Beck, U. (1992). Risk society: towards a new modernity. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Foucault, M. (1990). The history of sexuality, vol. I : an introduction. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Paye, O. (2005). La gouvernance: D'une notion polysémique à un concept politologique. Études internationales, 36(1), 13–40. Trans.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Shearing, C., & Wood, J. (2003). Nodal governance, democracy, and the new ‘denizens’. Journal of law and society, 30(3), 400–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wood, J., & Dupont, B. (Eds.) (2006). Democracy, society, and the governance of security. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hufty, M. (2008). La gouvernance est-elle un concept opérationnel ? Proposition pour un cadre analytique. Fédéralisme régionalisme, 7(2). Trans.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Blaustein, J. (2014). The space between: negotiating the contours of nodal security governance through ‘Safer Communities’ in Bosnia–Herzegovina. Policing and society,, 44–62.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Abrahamsen, R., & Williams, M. C. (2010). Security beyond the state: Private security in international politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Berndtsson, J., & Stern, M. (2011). Private security and the public–private divide: Contested lines of distinction and modes of governance in the Stockholm-Arlanda security assemblage. International Political Sociology, 5(4), 408–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Wood, J. (2006). Research and innovation in the field of security: a nodal governance view. Democracy, society and the governance of security.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    See the debate enclosed in the volume, Wood, J., & Dupont, B. (2006). Democracy, society, and the governance of security. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Singer, P. (2003). War, profits, and the vacuum of law: privatized military firms and international law. Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, 42, 521–535.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Avant, D. (2016). People (including me) used to think that the private military industry couldn’t govern itself. The Washington Post: We were wrong Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Baker, B. (2004). Multi-choice policing in Africa: is the continent following the South African pattern? Society in Transition, 35(2), 204–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Abrahamsen, R., & Williams, M. C. (2006). Security sector reform: bringing the private in: Analysis. Conflict, Security and Development, 6(1), 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Börzel, T. A., & Risse, T. (2010). Governance without a state: Can it work? Regulation & Governance, 4(2), 113–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Bellamy, A. J. (2003). Security sector reform: prospects and problems. Global Change, Peace & Security, 15(2), 101–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Chappuis, F., & Hänggi, H. (2009). The Interplay between Security and Legitimacy: Security Sector Reform and State-Building. In Facets and Practices of State-Building, 31–56.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    See the state of the art of Schroeder, U. C., & Chappuis, F (2014). New Perspectives on Security Sector Reform: The Role of Local Agency and Domestic Politics. International Peacekeeping, 21(2), 133–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Bryden, A. (2007). From policy to practice: the OECD's evolving role in security system reform. In DCAF Policy Paper, 22. Geneva: Centre for Democratic Control of Armed Forces.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Tschirgi, N. (2003). Peacebuilding as the link between security and development: is the window of opportunity closing? New York: International Peace Academy, Studies in Security and Development.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Chandler, D. (2007). The security–development nexus and the rise of ‘anti-foreign policy’. Journal of International relations and Development, 10(4), 362–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Albrecht, P., & Stepputat, F. (2015). The rise and fall of security sector reform in development. In P. Jackson (Ed.), Handbook of International Security and Development. Cheltenham: Elgar.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    OECD/DAC (2008). The OECD DAC Handbook on Security System Reform: Supporting Security and Justice. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    World Bank (2011). World Development Report 2011. Conflict, Security and Development. Washington DC: World Bank.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Brzoska, M. (2006). Introduction: criteria for evaluating post-conflict reconstruction and security sector reform in peace support operations. International Peacekeeping, 13(1), 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hills, A. (2014). Security sector or security arena? The evidence from Somalia. International Peacekeeping, 21(2), 165–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Baker, B., & Scheye, E. (2007). Multi-layered justice and security delivery in post-conflict and fragile states: Analysis. Conflict, Security and Development, 7(4), 503–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Menkhaus, K. J. (2007). Governance without government in Somalia: spoilers, state building, and the politics of coping. International Security, 31(3), 74–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lemay-Hébert, N. (2009). Statebuilding without nation-building? Legitimacy, state failure and the limits of the institutionalist approach. Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding, 3(1), 21–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Schroeder, U. C., & Chappuis, F. (2014). New Perspectives on Security Sector Reform: The Role of Local Agency and Domestic Politics. International Peacekeeping, 21(2), 133–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Baker, B. (2010). The future is non-state. In M. Sedra (Ed.), The Future of Security Sector Reform. CIGI: Waterloo.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    USAID (2006). Reconstruction for Development in Burundi: Guiding Criteria and Selected Key Issues. Washington: USAid.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    23 gardiennage companies are operating in Burundi, see Bresde Consulting Group (2014). Étude sur les acteurs non étatiques fournisseurs de sécurité au Burundi : Cas des sociétés privées de gardiennage et de surveillance (SPGS). Bujumbura: DSS.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Westley, W. A. (1953). Violence and the police. American Journal of Sociology, 59(1), 34–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    DEVCO-EuropeAid (2014). Évaluation conjointe de la coopération de l’Allemagne, de la Belgique, de la Commission européenne, de la France, des Pays-Bas, du Royaume-Uni et de la Suède avec le Burundi. Brussels: European Commission.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Interview with Journalist 1, Bujumbura, 13 June 2012; Follow-up interview with Journalist 1, Bujumbura, 14 November 2014.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Interview with Diplomat 1, Bujumbura, 14 June 2012; Interview with Diplomat 2, Bujumbura, 19 June 2012.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    See an extended description of the DSS in Ball, N (2014). Putting governance at the Heart of Security Sector Reform: Lessons from the Burundi-Netherlands Security Sector Development Programme. CRU Report. The Hague: Clingendael.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Interview with Diplomat 2, Bujumbura, 19 June 2012.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Ministère de la Sécurité Publique (2012). Plan Stratégique du Ministère de la Sécurité Publique 2013–2016. République du Burundi.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Decree n°100/18 of 17 February 2009 on the missions and organization of the Ministry of Public Security.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Decree n° 100/298 of 21 November 2011 on the organization of the Ministry of Public Security.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Decree n°100/186 of 20 July 2013 on the reglementation of the activities of private gardiennage and surveillance companies in Burundi.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Bresde Consulting Group (2014). Étude sur les acteurs non étatiques fournisseurs de sécurité au Burundi : Cas des sociétés privées de gardiennage et de surveillance (SPGS). Bujumbura: DSS.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Boshoff, H., & Vrey, W. (2006). A case study for Burundi: disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration during the transition in Burundi: a technical analysis. Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies Monographs.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Interview with Diplomat 2, Bujumbura, 19 June 2012; Interviews with PSC Executives 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 12, Bujumbura, 18–20 June 2012; Interview with Representative of the division of gardiennage oversight 1, Bujumbura, 13 June 2012.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Interview with Representative of the division of gardiennage oversight 1, Bujumbura, 13 June 2012.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Follow-up with Civil society member 1, Bujumbura, 15 November 2014.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Follow-up interview with Journalist 1, Bujumbura, 14 November 2014.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Baker, B. (2005). Who do people turn to for policing in Sierra Leone? Journal of Contemporary African Studies, 23(3), 371–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Interview with PSC Executives 6, Bujumbura, 19 June 2012; Follow-up interview with Journalist 1, Bujumbura, 14 November 2014.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Singer, P. W. (2011). Corporate warriors: The rise of the privatized military industry. Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Blaauw, P. F., & Bothma, L. J. (2003). Informal labour markets as a solution for unemployment in South Africa-a case study of car guards in Bloemfontein. SA Journal of Human Resource Management, 1(2), 40–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Gooptu, N. (2013). Servile sentinels of the City: private security guards, organized informality, and labour in interactive Services in Globalized India. International Review of Social History, 58(01), 9–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Follow-up interview with civil society member 1, Bujumbura, 15 November 2014; Interview with PSC executive 12, 20 June 2012.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Garland, D. (1996). The limits of the Sovereign state strategies of crime control in contemporary society. British Journal of Criminology, 36(4), 445–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    CENAP (2012). Étude sur les besoins de sécurité au Burundi. CENAP: Bujumbura.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Cumming-Bruce, N. (2016). Burundi Is Torturing Prisoners in Crackdown on Dissent. The New York Times: United Nations Says Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Interviews with PSC Executives 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 11, Bujumbura, 18–20 June 2012.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Interview with Business Owner 2, Bujumbura, 10 November 2014.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Carrere, R. (2010). Oil palm in Africa: past, present and future scenarios. World Rain Forest Movement series on tree plantations, 15.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Douma, P., Briscoe, I., & Gasana, J.-M. (2010). Peace in idle hands: the prospects and pitfalls of economic recovery in Burundi. The Hague: Clingendael.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Musahara, H., Kamungi, P. M., Oketch, J. S., & Vlassenroot, K. (2005). Conflict in the Great Lakes Region: How is it Linked with Land and Migration. London: Overseas Development Institute.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Scheye, E. (2013). Local Justice and Security Development in Burundi: Workplace Associations as a Pathway Ahead. The Hague: Clingendael.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Interview with Civil society member 1, Bujumbura, 15 January 2011.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    DERKS, M. (2011). Safety from below: is non-state security the way forward? The Hague: Clingendael.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    CENAP (2011). Renforcement des capacités des cellules de sécurité communautaire de Rumonge. Bujumbura: CENAP.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Burundi, C. T. B. (2014). Quels sont les problèmes locaux de sécurité au Burundi ? Recueil d’expérience menées dans 11 communes pilotes. Bujumbura: CTB Burundi.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    CENAP (2012). Étude sur les besoins de sécurité au Burundi. Bujumbura: CENAP.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Kleingeld, J., & van Leeuwen, M. (2010). Connecting Community Security and DDR: Experiences from Burundi. Netherlands: Peace, Security and Development Network.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Interview with Member of the CNDDR, Bujumbura, 16 June 2012; Follow-up interview with Journalist 1, Bujumbura, 14 November 2014.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Haggerty, K. (2006). [Review of the book Democracy, Society and the Governance of Security, by Jennifer Wood, Benoît Dupont, eds.]. Canadian Journal of Sociology Online.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre de Recherche en Science PolitiqueUniversité Saint-Louis - BruxellesBruxellesBelgium

Personalised recommendations