Advertisement

Crime, Law and Social Change

, Volume 65, Issue 3, pp 227–249 | Cite as

Penalizing democracy: punitive politics in neoliberal Mexico

  • Markus-Michael MüllerEmail author
Article

Abstract

During the last two decades Mexico witnessed a hitherto unparalleled increase in its prison population and an outright punitive turn in local politics. In analyzing these developments, the article argues that the latter are inseparable from different securitization processes emerging from the articulation of democratic politics and neoliberal rationalities of economic governance. The article analyzes three key policy areas—as well as the related (in)securitization processes, their legal-institutional manifestations, and the penalizing consequences—which are paradigmatic examples of the growing punitiveness of Mexican politics: (a) the securitization process related to the war on drugs, (b) the securitization of urban space, and (c) the securitization of migration. In analyzing these three instances of (in)securitization, the article stresses that far from being homogenous and even developments, (in)securitization as well as the underlying processes of neoliberalization and democratization are policy- and place-specific phenomena that produce an uneven punitive topography that shapes the neoliberal present in democratic Mexico.

Keywords

Organize Crime Mexico City Urban Space Drug Trafficking Penal Code 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Andreas, P. (2000). Border games: policing the U.S.-Mexico divide. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Arteaga Botello, N. (2009). The Mérida initiative: security-surveillance harmonization in Latin America. European Review of Latin American and Caribbean Studies, 87, 103–110.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Arteaga Botello, N. (2004). En busca de la legitimidad: seguridad pública y populismo punitivo en México, 1990–2000. Mexico City: UACM.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Astorga, L. (2004). El siglo de las drogas. El narcotráfico, del porfiriato al nuevo milenio. Mexico City: Random House Mondadori.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Auyero, J. (2012). Patients of the state: the politics of waiting in Argentina. Durham: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Azaola, E., & Bergman, M. (2007). The Mexican prison system. In W. A. Cornelius & D. Shirk (Eds.), Reforming the administration of justice in Mexico (pp. 91–114). Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Azaola, E., & Ruiz Torres, M. A. (2011). Poder y abusos de poder entre la polícia judicial en la Ciudad de México. Iberoamericana, 11(41), 99–113.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    BBC. (2012). Mexico prison riot: Apodaca boss and guards arrested, February 22.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Becker, A., & Müller, M.-M. (2013). The securitization of urban space and the “rescue” of downtown Mexico City: vision and practice. Latin American Perspectives, 40(2), 77–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Becker, K. (2011). Military justice and impunity in Mexico’s Drug War. Security Sector Reform (SSR) ISSSUE PAPERS, No. 3, September 2011. http://www.cigionline.org/sites/default/files/SSR_Issue_no3_1.pdf. Accessed 25 June 2014.
  11. 11.
    Benítez Manaut, R. (2000). Containing armed groups, drug trafficking, and organized crime in Mexico: the role of the military. In J. Bailey & R. Godson (Eds.), Organized crime and democratic governability. Mexico and the U.S.-Mexican borderlands (pp. 126–159). Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bigo, D., & Tsoukala, A. (2008). Understanding (in)security. In D. Bigo & A. Tsoukala (Eds.), Terror, insecurity and liberty. Illiberal practices of liberal regimes after 9/11 (pp. 1–9). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bourbeau, P. (2013). The securitization of migration. A study of movement and order. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Buffington, R. (1998). Looking forward, looking back: judicial discretion and state legitimation in modern Mexico. Crime Histoire & Sociétés, 2(2), 15–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Calleros Alacrón, J. C. (2009). El vínculo entre seguridad nacional y migración en México. Revista Mexicana de Política Exterior, 88, 9–43.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Campesi, G. (2010). Policing, urban poverty and insecurity in Latin America: the case of Mexico City and Buenos Aires. Theoretical Criminology, 14(4), 447–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Castillo, J. (2008). After the explosion. In R. Burdett & D. Sudjic (Eds.), The endless city (pp. 174–185). London: Phaidon.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ceyhan, A., & Tsoukala, A. (2002). The securitization of migration in western societies: ambivalent discourses and policies. Alternatives. Global Local Political, 27(1), 21–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    CDHDF (Comisión de Derechos Humanos del Distrito Federal). (2004). Informe especial sobre la situación de los centros de reclusión del Distrito Federal. Mexico City: CDHDF.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    CDHFMC (Centro de Derechos Humanos Fray Matías de Córdova). (2013). Derechos Humanos y condiciones de detención en la estación migratoria siglo XXI. Tapachula, Chiapas, México. Tapachula: CDHFMC.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chevigny, P. (2003). The populism of fear: politics of crime in the Americas. Punishment and Society, 5(1), 77–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    CNDH (Comisión Nacional de Derechos Humanos). (2012). Diagnostico nacional de supervisión penitenciaria 2012. Mexico City: CNDH.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Coleman, M. (2007). Immigration geopolitics beyond the Mexico-US border. Antipode, 38(1), 54–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Coleman, M. (2007). A geopolitics of engagement: neoliberalism, the war on terrorism, and the reconfiguration of US immigration enforcement. Geopolitics, 12(4), 607–634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Comaroff, J., & Comaroff, J. (2006). Law and disorder in the postcolony: an introduction. In J. Comaroff & J. Comaroff (Eds.), Law and disorder in the postcolony (pp. 1–56). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cornelius, W. A., & Weldon, J. A. (2004). Politics in Mexico. In G. Almond, G. B. Powell, K. Strom, & R. Dalton (Eds.), Comparative politics today. A world view (pp. 298–329). New York: Pearson Longman.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Corva, D. (2008). Neoliberal globalization and the war on drugs: transnationalizing illiberal governance in the Americas. Political Geography, 27, 176–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Craig, R. (1980). Operation condor. Mexico’s antidrug campaign enters a new era. Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs, 22(3), 345–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Crossa, V. (2009). Resisting the entrepreneurial city: street vendors’ struggle in Mexico City’s historic center. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 33(1), 43–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dammert, L., & Salazar, F. (2008). ¿Duros con el delito? populismo e inseguridad en América Latina. Flacso: Santiago de Chile.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Davis, D. E. (2010). The political and economic origins of violence and insecurity in contemporary Latin America: past trajectories and future prospects. In E. D. Arias & D. M. Goldstein (Eds.), Violent democracies in Latin America (pp. 35–62). Durham: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Davis, D. E. (2012). Policing and regime transition: From post-authoritarianism to populism to neoliberalism. In W. Pansters (Ed.), Violence, coercion, and state-making in twentieth-century Mexico. The other half of the centaur (pp. 68–90). Stanford: Stanford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Davis, D. E. (2013). Zero-tolerance policing, stealth real estate development, and the transformation of public space: evidence from Mexico City. Latin American Perspectives, 40(2), 53–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    DDLDB (Diario de los debates de la Asamblea Legislativa del Distrito Federal). Segundo periodo ordinario de sesiones del segundo año de ejercicio. Mexico City, 29 April 1999.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    De Genova, N. (2007). The production of culprits: from deportability to detainability in the aftermath of ‘homeland security’. Citizenship Studies, 11(5), 421–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Deaton, J., & Rodriguez Ferreira, O. (2015). Detention without charge. The use of arraigo for criminal investigation in Mexico. San Diego: University of San Diego/Justice in Mexico Project.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Délano, A. (2011). Mexico and its Diaspora in the United States. Policies of emigration since 1848. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Diaz, G., & Kuhner, G. (2007). Mujeres migrantes en tránsito y detenidas en México. Mexico City: PROCM.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Eisendtadt, T. A. (2007). Courting democracy in Mexico: Party strategies and electoral institutions by Eisenstad. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    El Universal. (2011). Ley de Tierras regirá sobre las invasiones en zonas agrarias, December 13.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    El Universal. (2013). Endurece ALDF penas para delitos durante marchas, November 19.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Feldman, A. (2004). Securocratic wars of public safety: globalized policing as a scopic regime. Interventions, 6(3), 330–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Finkenbusch, P. (2014). The knowledge Paradox of statebuilding: Serendipitous expansion in the Mérida Initiative. Dissertation, Freie Universität Berlin.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Fox, J. (1994). The difficult transition from clientelism to citizenship. World Politics, 46(2), 151–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gonzales, A. (2013). Reform without justice: Latino migrant politics and the homeland security state. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gutmann, M. C. (2002). The romance of democracy. Compliant defiance in contemporary Mexico. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Harvey, D. (2005). A brief history of neoliberalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hernández, A. P. (2010). Drugs legislation and prison situation in Mexico. In M. Pien & C. Youngers (Eds.), Systems overload—Drug laws and prisons in Latin America (pp. 60–70). Washington, DC: WOLA.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hernández, R. A. (2014). Structural racism and the criminalization of poverty: imprisoned indigenous women in Mexico. Paper presented at the workshop “Re-thinking the state: Law and politics in the making of inequalities in Latin America,”. Berlin: Freie Universität.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hilgers, T. (2008). Causes and consequences of political clientelism: Mexico’s PRD in comparative perspective. Latin American Politics and Society, 50(4), 123–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Huysmans, J. (2000). The European union and the securitization of migration. Journal of Common Market Studies, 38(5), 751–777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Isacson, A., Meyer, M., & Morales, G. (2014). Mexico’s other border. Security, migration, and the humanitarian crisis at the line with Central America. Washington, DC: Washington Office on Latin America.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    INM (Instituto Nacional de Migración) (2011). Realiza INM Menos Detenciones. http://www.inm.gob.mx.
  54. 54.
    INM (Instituto Nacional de Migración) (2012). “Eventos de extranjeros alojados en estaciones migratorias, según entidad federativa, 2012”. Boletín mensual de Estadísticas Migratorias 2012. Cuadro 3.1. Mexico City: Instituto Nacional de Migración.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Johnson, J. (2008). The forgotten border. Migration & human rights at Mexico’s Southern Border. Washington, DC: The Latin American Working Group Education Foundation.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Knight, A., & Pansters, W. (Eds.). (2005). Caciquismo in twentieth-century Mexico. London: Institute for the Study of the Americas.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    La Jornada. (2002). Critica Ensástiga la iniciativa de reformas al Código Penal propuesta por el Ejecutivo local, August 25.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    La Jornada. (2012). Propone Ebrard 30 años de cárcel a quien perturbe la paz social, November 1.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    La Jornada. (2013). Crece la corrupción en cárceles; reos controlan 65 %, dice CNDH, November, 20.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    La Razón. (2012). 44 muertos en un motín en México, February 22.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Lawson, C. (2004). Introduction. In J. I. Domínguez & C. Lawson (Eds.), Mexico’s pivotal democratic election: candidates, voters, and the presidential election of 2000 (pp. 1–23). Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Leal Martínez, A. (2007). Peligro, proximidad y diferencia: negociar fronteras en el Centro Histórico de la Ciudad de México. Alteridades, 17(34), 27–38.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Luccisano, L., & Macdonald, L. (2013). Guns and butter: social policy, semi-clientelism, and efforts to reduce violence in Mexico City. Paper prepared for the Workshop ‘Clientelism and Violence in Subnational Latin American Politics’, Carleton University, Ottawa, December 13–14, 2013.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Luciano, L., & Macdonald, L. (2015). Guns and butter in Mexico city. In T. Hilgers & L. Macdonald (Eds.), How violence varies within nations: subnational place and identity. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    MacLeod, G. (2002). From urban entrepreneurialism to a revanchist city? on the spatial injustices of Glasgow’s renaissance. Antipode, 34(3), 602–624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Magaloni, B. (2007). Voting for autocracy: hegemonic party survival and its demise in Mexico. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Martinez, D., & Slack, J. (2013). What part of “illegal” don’t you understand? the social consequences of criminalizing unauthorized Mexican migrants in the united states. Social and Legal Studies, 22(4), 535–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Meneses-Reyes, R. (2013). Out of place, still in motion: shaping (im)mobility through urban regulation. Social and Legal Studies, 22(3), 335–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Mitchell, D. (1997). The annihilation of space by law: the roots and implications of anti- homeless laws in the United States. Antipode, 29(3), 303–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Mitchell, K., & Beckett, K. (2008). Securing the global city: crime, consulting, risk, and ratings in the production of urban space. Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, 15(1), 75–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Morín, J. L. (2008). Latinas/os and US prisons: trends and challenges. Latino Studies, 6(1–2), 11–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Morton, A. D. (2012). The war on drugs in Mexico: a failed state? Third World Quarterly, 33(9), 1631–1645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Mountz, A., & Curran, W. (2009). Policing in drag: Giuliani goes global with the illusion of control. Geoforum, 40(6), 1033–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Müller, M.-M. (2012). Public security in the negotiated state. Policing in Latin America and beyond. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Müller, M.-M. (2012). The rise of the penal state in Latin America. Contemporary Justice Review, 15(1), 57–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Müller, M.-M. (2012). Transformaciones del clientelismo: democratización, (in)seguridad y politicas urbanas en el Distrito Federal. Foro Internacional, 52(4), 836–863.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Müller, M.-M. (2012). The universal and the particular in Latin American penal state formation. In P. Squires & J. Lea (Eds.), Criminalisation and advanced marginality. Critically exploring the work of Loïc Wacquant (pp. 195–216). Bristol: Policy Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Müller, M.-M. (2013a). “Public” security and patron-client exchanges in Latin America. Government and Opposition, 48(4), 548–569.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Müller, M.-M. (2013b). Penal statecraft in the Latin American city: assessing Mexico city’s punitive urban democracy. Social and Legal Studies, 22(4), 441–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Müller, M.-M. (2014). De-Monopolizing the bureaucratic field. Internationalization strategies and the transnationalization of security governance in Mexico city. Alternatives Global Local Political, 39(1), 37–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Müller, M.-M. (2015). Punitive entanglements. The “war on gangs” and the making of a transnational penal apparatus in the Americas. Geopolitics, 20(3), 696–727.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Müller, M.-M. (2016). The punitive city. Privatised policing and protection in neoliberal Mexico. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Pansters, W. (Ed.). (2012). Violence, coercion, and state-making in twentieth-century Mexico. The other half of the centaur. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Pansters, W., & Castillo Berthier, H. (2007). Mexico city. In K. Koonings & D. Kruijt (Eds.), Fractured cities. Social exclusion, urban violence & contested spaces in Latin America (pp. 36–56). London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Peck, J., Theodore, N., & Brenner, N. (2009). Neoliberal urbanism: models, moments, mutations. SAIS Review, 29(1), 49–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    PGDDF (Programa General de Desarrollo del Distrito Federal). (2000). Programa general de desarrollo del distrito federal 2001–2006. Mexico City: Gobierno del Distrito Federal.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    PGDDF (Programa General de Desarrollo del Distrito Federal). (2000). 2001–2006. Mexico City: Gobierno del Distrito Federal.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    PGDDF (Programa General de Desarrollo del Distrito Federal). (2013). 2013–2018. Mexico City: Gobierno del Distrito Federal.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    PGDDF (Programa General de Desarrollo del Distrito Federal). (2013). 2013–2019. Mexico City: Gobierno del Distrito Federal.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Pimentel, S. A. (2000). The nexus of organized crime and the organization of crime. In J. Bailey & R. Godson (Eds.), Organized crime and democratic governability. Mexico and the U.S.-Mexican borderlands (pp. 33–57). Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Pratt, J. (2007). Penal populism. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Presidencia República de la. (2012). 6 Informe de Gobierno: 2012–2013. Mexico City: Gobierno de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Presidencia de la República. (2013). 1er Informe de Gobierno: 2012–2013. Anexo estadístico. Mexico City: Gobierno de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Schild, V. (forthcoming). Securing citizens and entrenching inequalities: The Janus-faced neoliberal Latin American state. Berlin: desiguALdades.net Working Paper Series. Research Network on Interdependent Inequalities in Latin America.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Seelke, C., & Finklea, K. (2014). U.S.-Mexican security cooperation: the Mérida initiative and beyond. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Reuters. (2013). Prominent Mexicans urge government to decriminalize marijuana, September 25.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Robinson, W. I. (2003). Transnational conflicts. Central America, social change and globalization. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Rosas, G. (2013). Barrio libre: criminalizing states and delinquent refusals of the new frontier. Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Ruiz Ortega, H. (2006). Crecimiento de la población penitenciora. Mexico City: Subsecretaria del sistema penitenciario. http://www.reclusorios,df.gob.mxfpenitenciarismo/crecímiento_población.pdf.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Sabet, D. M. (2012). Police reform in Mexico: informal politics and the challenge of institutional change. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Serrano, M. (2012). States of violence: state-crime relations in Mexico. In W. Pansters (Ed.), Violence, coercion, and state-making in twentieth-century Mexico. The other half of the centaur (pp. 135–158). Stanford: Stanford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Shirk, D. A. (2010). Justice reform in Mexico: change & challenges in the judicial sector. In E. L. Olson, D. A. Shirk, & A. Selee (Eds.), Shared responsibility. U.S. – Mexico policy options for confronting organized crime (pp. 205–246). Washington DC: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Snyder, R., & Durán Martínez, A. (2009). Drugs, violence, and state-sponsored protection rackets in Mexico and Colombia. Colombia Internacional, 70, 61–91.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Squires, P. (2012). Neoliberal, brutish and short? cities, inequalities, and violences. In P. Squires & J. Lea (Eds.), Criminalisation and advanced marginality: critically exploring the work of loic wacquant (pp. 217–242). Bristol: Policy Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    SSPDF (Secretaría de Seguridad Pública del Distrito Federal). (2006). Memoria instituional 2000–2006. Mexico City: SSPDF.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Stiegler, U. (2013). Migrants’ money for financial inclusion? Transnational governance- initiatives in the US-Mexican Context. Dissertation, Freie Universität Berlin.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    U.S. Department of Homeland Security. (2012). Immigration and enforcement actions: 2011. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Office of Immigration Statistics.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Valenzuela Aguilera, A. (2013). Urban surges: power, territory, and the social control of space in Latin America. Latin American Perspectives, 40(2), 21–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Vogt, W. A. (2013). Crossing Mexico: structural violence and the commodification of undocumented Central American migrants. American Ethnologist, 40(4), 764–780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Wacquant, L. (2009). Punishing the poor. The neoliberal government of social insecurity. Durham: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Wacquant, L. (2008). The militarization of urban marginality: lessons from the Brazilian metropolis. International Political Sociology, 2(1), 56–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Watt, P., & Zepeda, R. (2012). Drug war Mexico. Politics, neoliberalism and violence in the new narcoeconomy. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Weaver, O. (1995). Securitization and desecuritization. In R. D. Lipschutz (Ed.), On security (pp. 46–87). New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Wigle, J. (2014). The ‘Graying’ of ‘green’ zones: spatial governance and irregular settlement in Xochimilco, Mexico City. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 38(2), 573–589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Williams, G. (2011). The Mexican exception. Sovereignty, police, and democracy. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Zepeda-Lecuona, G. (2007). Crimen sin castigo. Procuración de justicia penal y ministerio público en México. Mexico City: Fondo de la Cultura Economica.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Zepeda-Lecuona, G. (2008). La reforma constitucional en materia penal de junio 2008: Claroscuros de una oportunidad histórica para transformar el sistema penal mexicano. Análisis Plural 1. Tlaquepaque: ITESO.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ZI Lateinamerika-InstitutFreie Universität BerlinBerlinGermany

Personalised recommendations