Advertisement

Crime, Law and Social Change

, Volume 62, Issue 1, pp 1–20 | Cite as

Crime from the keyboard: organised cybercrime, co-offending, initiation and knowledge transmission

  • Alice HutchingsEmail author
Article

Abstract

This paper examines a predominantly Australian sample of computer crime offenders involved in fraud and/or unauthorised access. This paper focuses on the extent to which offenders are involved in organised crime, the nature of the relationship between co-offending, initiation and knowledge transmission, and how the online environment facilitates organised crime and co-offending. This qualitative analysis draws from interviews with self-identified offenders, law enforcement officers who investigate these offenses, and court documents, providing a unique understanding of organised crime involving computer systems.

Keywords

Credit Card Online Environment Organise Crime Unauthorised Access Computer Crime 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

I would like to thank those who participated in this study and the assistance provided by the Australian Federal Police, the Queensland Police Service, Western Australia Police, and Victoria Police. I also appreciate the support of my supervisors, Dr Hennessey Hayes, Associate Professor Janet Ransley, Professor Simon Bronitt, and Professor Peter Grabosky, and acknowledge the assistance of the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice and the ARC Centre of Excellence in Policing and Security at Griffith University in undertaking my doctorate.

References

  1. 1.
    Lusthaus, J. (2013). How organised is organised cybercrime? Global Crime, 14(1), 52–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Felson, M. (1998). Crime and everyday life (2nd ed.). Thousand Oakes: Pine Forge Press.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chantler, A. N. (1995). Risk: The Profile of the Computer Hacker. Curtin University.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Meyer, G. R. (1989). The Social Organization of the Computer Underground. Northern Illinois University.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Holt, T. J. (2007). Subcultural evolution? Examining the influence of on- and off-line experiences on deviant subcultures. Deviant Behaviour, 28(2), 171–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jordan, T., & Taylor, P. (1998). A sociology of hackers. The Sociological Review, 46(4), 757–780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yar, M. (2013). Cybercrime and society (2nd ed.). London: SAGE Publications Ltd.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    AusCERT. (2006). Australian 2006 computer crime & security survey. Brisbane: AusCERT.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Smith, R. G. (2001). Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice No. 202: Cross-border economic crime: The agenda for reform. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Brenner, S. W. (2007). Cybercrime: Re-thinking crime control strategies. In Y. Jewkes (Ed.), Crime online. Devon: Willan Publishing.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wall, D. S. (2007). Cybercrime: The transformation of crime in the information age. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Goode, S., & Cruise, S. (2006). What motivates software crackers? Journal of Business Ethics, 65, 173–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Shaw, E., Ruby, K. G., & Post, J. M. (1998). The insider threat to information systems: The psychology of the dangerous insider. Security Awareness Bulletin, 98(2), 1–10.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Finch, E. (2007). The problem of stolen identity and the Internet. In Y. Jewkes (Ed.), Crime online. Devon: Willan Publishing.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chu, B., Holt, T. J., & Ahn, G. J. (2010). Examining the Creation, Distribution and Function of Malware On-Line: Technical report for the National Institute of Justice.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Franklin, J., Paxson, V., Perrig, A., & Savage, S. (2007). An inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of internet miscreants. Paper presented at the ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security (CCS), Virginia, October 29-November 2Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Holt, T. J., & Lampke, E. (2010). Exploring stolen data markets online: products and market forces. Criminal Justice Studies: A Critical Journal of Crime, Law and Society, 23(1), 33–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Motoyama, M., McCoy, D., Levchenko, K., Savage, S., & Voelker, G. M. (2011). An analysis of underground forums. Paper presented at the 2011 ACM SIGCOMM conference on Internet measurement, Berlin, November 2–4Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Choo, K.-K. R. (2007). Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice No. 333: Zombies and botnets. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2004). United Nations convention against transnational organized crime and the protocols thereto. Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Choo, K.-K. R., & Smith, R. G. (2008). Criminal exploitation of online systems by organised crime groups. Asian Journal of Criminology, 3(1), 37–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Choo, K.-K. R. (2008). Organised crime groups in cyberspace: a typology. Trends in Organized Crime, 11(3), 270–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Grabosky, P. (2007). Requirements of prosecution services to deal with cyber crime. Crime, Law & Social Change, 47(4–5), 201–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Theohary, C. A., & Rollins, J. (2011). Terrorist use of the internet: Information operations in cyberspace. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Smith, R. G., McCusker, R., & Walters, J. (2010). Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice No. 394: Financing of terrorism: Risks for Australia. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Seib, P. (2008). The Al-Qaeda media machine. Military Review, 88(3), 74–80.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Barber, R. (2001). Hackers profiled - who are they and what are their motivations? Computer Fraud & Security, 2(1), 14–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Chantler, A., & Broadhurst, R. (2006). Social engineering and crime prevention in cyberspace - technical report. Brisbane: Queensland University of Technology.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Furnell, S. (2002). Cybercrime: Vandalizing the information society. London: Pearson Education Limited.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Taylor, P. A. (1999). Hackers. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Berg, B. L. (2007). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences (6th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Edney, R., & Bagaric, M. (2007). Australian sentencing: principles and practice. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Farrington, D. P. (1989). Early predictors of adolescent aggression and adult violence. Violence and Victims, 4(2), 79–100.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wright, R. T., Decker, S. H., Redfern, A. K., & Smith, D. L. (1992). A snowball’s chance in hell: doing field research with residential burglars. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 29(2), 148–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sutherland, E. H., & Cressey, D. R. (1974). Criminology (9th ed.). Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    McAdams, D. P. (2008). The Life Story Interview. http://www.sesp.northwestern.edu/docs/LifeStoryInterview.pdf. Accessed November 12 2009.
  37. 37.
    Wright, R., & Bennett, T. (1990). Exploring the offender’s perspective: Observing and interviewing criminals. In K. L. Kempf (Ed.), Measurement issues in criminology (pp. 138–151). New York: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Israel, M. (2004). Strictly confidential?: integrity and the disclosure of criminological and socio-legal research. British Journal of Criminology, 44(5), 715–740. doi: 10.1093/bjc/azh033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gibbs, G. (2007). Analyzing qualitative data. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Smith, R. G., Grabosky, P., & Urbas, G. (2004). Cyber criminals on trial. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Cambridge, Computer LaboratoryCambridgeUK

Personalised recommendations